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Ex foris

? Karch posts: 13
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Mrah (from Mrah <'mhra> [m̥ʰɐrˈraː] meaning "what") is a language spoken on the other side of the continent the Namican languages are spoken in.
It has a rather unremarkable consonant inventory and a rather large vowel inventory of 2 x 5 vowels, organized in two vowel harmony sets:
/p t c k ʔ/ <p t c k 7>
/m n ɲ ŋ/ <m n ny ng>
/h/ <h>
/w r lʲ/ <w r l>

1: /i e æ o u/ <i e a o u>
2: /ɪ ɛ a ɔ ʊ/ <i e a o u>
The second harmonic set is marked by an apostrophe before the word.
Mrah syllable ( = word) structure is (S)C(R)V(V2)(N), where S = stops and nasals, R = liquids, V2 = {i u} (but sequences of two same consecutive vowels aren't allowed and become single vowels when underlying) and N = {ŋ, ʔ}

Verbs pt. 1

There is a TAM/evidential particle after the verb. Its template is evidential-subject+object person marking-tense after transitive verbs and evidential-subject person marking-tense after intransitive verbs (note: subject marks for number as well, object doesn't).
'kou m-n-aeat firsthand-1sg>3-prs
I eat it.
se p-l-orun hearsay-2sg>3-pst
You run.
Mang se m-r-a-ng 7-ri teMang run firsthand-3sg>3-prs 3.poss-house into
Mang runs into his house.
? Karch posts: 13
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Proto-Namican is still a rather unreasonable target, let's start with Proto-Namicish (Namican proper):

*p *t *c *ṭ *č *k *k° *ʔ
*b *d *ʒ *ḍ *ǯ *g *g°
*m *n *ṇ *ñ *ŋ
*v *s *z *ṣ *ž *x *x° *h
*w *l *ṛ *γ

*i *ü *e *a *u *i· *ü· *e· *a· *u·
*ɛ̣ *ạ *ọ (These vowels probably were long and backed)

Here are thus some preliminary sound changes to Namic proper:
(T = voiceless stops, D = voiced stops)
ṣ -> ł̣
{i ü u} -> 0 / T_C(C)(C)V
x -> š / _{i ü e a}
xy -> š
e -> ä / Cγ_
u -> o / Cγ_
ɛ̣ ạ ọ -> e· a· o·
ä· -> a·
ü -> ö
i·ʔ ü·ʔ u·ʔ e·ʔ a·ʔ o·ʔ-> i ü u e a o / _#, _C
iγ üγ uγ eγ aγ oγ -> i· ü· u· e· a· o· / _C, _#
{t c ṭ č k k°} -> {tʰ cʰ ṭʰ čʰ kʰ kʰ°} / _Vh, _Vx, _Vx°
{t c ṭ č k k°} -> {tʰ cʰ ṭʰ čʰ kʰ kʰ°} / _h
{t ṭ k} -> {tt ṭṭ kk} / ʔ_
ʔ -> 0
γ -> ž / _{i ü e ö ä}
γ -> w / _{u o a}
γ -> 0
kʰ° -> v
ṇ -> ŋ / _{u o a}, {u o a}_
ṇ -> n
x -> h
h -> 0
v -> 0 / _i
v -> w 
z and ž become less fricated over time
DV -> TV̀
VD -> V̀T
D -> T

And some examples:

ne·ʔmik -> nemik [nɛmɪk] 'Namic' pn.
u·žγu-n -> uoʒon [uːj̟ɔn] 'to go' v
ʔitagu -> ttakù [tːɐɡʊ̀] 'clap' n.
xeži -> sceʒi [ʃɛj̟ɪ] 'breath' n.
xüwide-n -> scọwitèn [ʃœwɪdɛ̀n] 'to disappear, to vanish' v.
ṣiγu-n -> ḷiwun [ꞎɪwʊn] 'to torture, to make someone bleed' v.

And I somehow managed to completely forgot to post Namic phonology, so here it is:

p t ʦ ʈ ʧ k kʷ <p t ts ṭ c k kw>
tː ʈː kː <tt ṭṭ kk>
tʰ ʦʰ ʈʰ ʧʰ kʰ <th tsh ṭh ch kh>
m n ɲ ŋ ŋʷ <m n ñ ŋ ŋw>
s ꞎ ʃ xʷ <s ḷ sc hw>
l z ɻ ʒ w <l z r ʒ w>

ɪ ʊ ɛ œ ɔ æ ɐ <i u e ọ o æ a>
iː yː uː eː oː aː <ie ọy uo ei ou aa>
? Karch posts: 13
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*i and *i° seem to merge in rounded environments (into a vowel that evolved as if it was *i in Namican proper but *i° in Whateveric.), so *i° is mostly phonemic.

last seen: 10 days ago
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