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Risha Cuhbi

Ex foris

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Reciprocals, reflexives etc
With many verbs reciprocals can be simply expressed with reduplication in context, but often co-occur with the reciprocal pronoun ŋǃèŋǃè (literally 'head-head'). Like other verbs formed with reduplication, all are imperfective.

(1) Kahạ-ro ŋǃèŋǃè maŋ-maŋ-orą tsą
man-HON=that REC hit-REC-HON AN.IM
Him and that man are hitting one another

Note that they force the subject into the plural when there is only the one subject:

(2) Kahạ-rą-ro ŋǃèŋǃè maŋ-maŋ-orą tsą
man-HON-PL=that REC hit-REC-HON AN.IM
Those men are hitting one another!

Reflexives are formed similarly with a single iŋǃè, etymologically a possessed form of 'head':

(3) Kahạ-ro iŋǃè maŋ-orą tsą
man-HON-that REF hit-HON AN.IN
That man hit himself
in thread: tsi scratchpad
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Babel text
žop ŋǃè ru zò mte doo
whole world DAT language one stand
In the whole world, there was one language.

ninạ ya-mbạ dži ɢǂʰuɢǂʰu-x aŋŋo / dži šạnar q!ab ye-ç dʰędʰę-tʰa hoy / to-srob là này
3pl away-sun come sweat-SUB in / come shinar land be_in-SUB flatland-PL MOD / up-tent raise MOD
And it came about that in their wandering from the east, they came to a stretch of flat country in the land of Shinar, and there they put their tents up.

And they said one to another, Come, let us make bricks, burning them well. And they had bricks for stone, putting them together with sticky earth.
And they said, Come, let us make a town, and a tower whose top will go up as high as heaven; and let us make a great name for ourselves, so that we may not be wanderers over the face of the earth.
And the Lord came down to see the town and the tower which the children of men were building.
And the Lord said, See, they are all one people and have all one language; and this is only the start of what they may do: and now it will not be possible to keep them from any purpose of theirs.
Come, let us go down and take away the sense of their language, so that they will not be able to make themselves clear to one another.
So the Lord God sent them away into every part of the earth: and they gave up building their town.
So it was named Babel, because there the Lord took away the sense of all languages and from there the Lord sent them away over all the face of the earth.
in thread: tsi scratchpad
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Impersonal constructions
Spoken Tsi has an impersonal perfective verb structure used to express non-volition, in which there is no grammatical subject and the 'logical subject' is expressed as an indirect object. The auxiliary used for this structure is ži, derived historically from dži 'come'.

(1) nạ'rro q!òyo ži
1sg=for get_hungry come
I got hungry/I'm hungry

As is common in other contexts, ro is often treated as a serial verb, allowing dropping of the pronoun:

(2) (ạnnạ) q!òyo ro ži
1sg get_hungry for come
I got hungry/I'm hungry

This structure is very common for non-volitive action in general - again only with perfectives, however:

(3) q!ʰạ-x ro ži
left_foot-do for come
(He) fell, tripped over

It is also used for weather structures:

(4) šo-Tsààd šèèšee ro ži
down=Tsat rain for come
It rained in Tsat
in thread: tsi scratchpad

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