Modern Tzuman 4
Particles, Interjections, Examples, Writing (under heavy construction)
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hav/ho introduces an subclause, a cross between when and that.

Dialectal(?): VERB-cond oy continuous marker


Locative prepositions

prepositioncase governedmeaningexample
uyétze+accacrossuyetze lĕrehósah across the road
+datthrough uyetze noyáncu through the house
seaǧ+gennearseaǧ cneknóvos near the cnákňa tree
ēfs+datat, by (location)ēfs noyáncu at the house
+geninēfs ehátzas in the bread
+acconēfs lĕrehósah on the road
en+datwithen evešuy with freedom, by means of freedom
pije+datwith (comeraderie)Muy pije ǧéyo we are with
composed of eróca pije ksóyešv 'the forest is made up of trees'
+accagainst (hostility)<>
ňa+gennext toňa mhosúros beside the guard
+datinsideňa ozbíru inside the city
haše+genuntilhaše rovošos ǧéyah imēyóvi Until (when) I/we see you
+accafter (pursuit)<>
yei+accupyei palíyah up the fruit tree
tas+gentotas nĕňúndas to over there
+accontotas tzayúvah onto the bridge
+datintotas noyáncu into the house
inas+datunderinas ňorhu under the tree trunk
+gendown belowinas ňorkvus down below the tree trunk

Grammatical prepositions

prepositioncase governedmeaningexample
éhez+datfor (benefactive)ehez ǧéyo for (the benefit of) you



how are you(Ǧi) uy šan?


no (statement is incorrect)taoyes (statement is correct)ňe
no (generalized negative)diye~deyeyes (generalized positive)bayin~baye~beye
no sir (directed at superiors or those accorded high respect)ívemyes sir (directed at superiors or those accorded high respect)ǰbeate
no you ingrate (despicative)húzayes you ingrate (despicative)meš


Nominal-creating suffixes
-aanimate augmentive (noun > noun, adjective > noun)
-essianimate denominative (verb > noun)
-in-ese, -ian (noun > adjective/noun)
-isinanimate placename suffix (noun > noun)
-oinanimate denominative (noun > noun, adjective > noun)
-otsite of verbing (used of places, not items). Inanimate. (verb > noun)
-šuinanimate abstraction suffix (noun > noun, adjective > noun, verb > noun)
-tanimate agentive (verb > noun)
-uhtinanimate abstraction suffix (noun > noun, adjective > noun, verb > noun)
-utze-ene, -ese (adjective > noun, noun > noun)

Egzómpel? Uy rólaš egzómpel? Uy irǧúvah γomváyah tas horzúšah iláyov? Yaitzi, jlenírov móletsv.
Examples? What's an example? Is that like giving out a free sample? Good customer-getter, that.
N Interr N  ?  ?  indef_art sample free like give_out that  customer  good

Hóras, uy roš lufsah víyo fánov pencíyĕhn fencíyĕhn?
waitimper interr who thisaccsg 1sgdat say-inf serial.saypret.3 saypret.3

Wait, who told me it was example?

Ranĕš ēfs káfamn yáitzey pije
where at/by prep.accompany
stzóriv yev yámĕhn??? have/exist-3pers

Where's that little rat with the hunting lizard that told me?



As far as can be determined, The Kanaši were the first people on Šaol to develop writing, and their system provided the seeds for all other writing systems seen today. The Magran of Xatsan, while they claim to be of a very ancient pedigree, deliberately do not use writing as humans do, limiting themselves to pictograms at the most for religiocultural reasons.
Having developed an initial logographic system, Tzuman is written in modern times with a complex abugida, in which vowels are written as modifications or diacratics on a base consonant/syllable symbol. Given the phonological changes in the language, such a change was necessary, as sound change had sundered the mnemonics of the logography. Certain logograms remain, as well as the 'syllabic' symbols, such as {img TURTLE} nXwXM (M in transcription represents an original m which can be interpreted as a different nasal) which take vowel (and some conjunct consonant) symbols and apply them internally rather than following the end consonant (as is the case with most cluster conjuncts); thus we come to the forms {img2 TURTLE} návam 'turtle', and {img3 TURTLE-REED} núyenc 'home' (-REED is the letter for c). This particular example also has a (usually) nonwritten internal sound, in origin *w, but having changed into v and y in the two words in question. It is possible to indicate the actual sound in this position by adding a further diacratic to the structure, {img4 TURTLE-v} or {img5 TURTLE-REED-y}, but this is not usually done as context and the further letters weed out most ambiguities.
While in most cases the Kanaši do use the vowel diacratics, in simple notes and other situations where speed is desired (and ambiguity will not run rampant) they can be dropped: {img3 TURTLE-REED} (literally nXwXMc) alone instead of {img5 TURTLE-REED-y} núyenc.


Conjunct consonants are frequently encountered due to assimilations between differently-articulated sounds (See the Clusters section for more on how these are formed). They were originally written as separate symbols following the demise of the syllabary, with their original Old Tzuman vowels in place when the vowel diacritics were used, and this continued in official/high-literary situations for centuries; however, in less stringent locales, compromise and merged forms were created, and it is these which gave rise, during the orthographic reforms of 200-150ybp, to the modern conjuncts and ligatures, which are quite varied.

An innovation of Cenašene scribes which was widely adopted during the <Middle Times> was the distinguishing of ĕ from e by the addition of a perpendicular dash, which spread rapidly across the trade routes, replacing various local solutions (or a lack thereof) to the problem.

When newspapers came into being, there occurred a great standardization, and modification, of the alphabetic/abugidaic representation of Tzuman. Z came into being (a digraph of d and s which had been in use in Cenašene scribal tradition for <insert special z-word here>), ǰ was created by adding a bar on the left side of č, the strict writing of ē differently from ĕ came into being (doubling the curve of ĕ before the dash is written), and the vowel stress shift, which was previously never indicated in writing even when the fully vocalized forms were used, began being written commonly (though many official sources refused, some to this day, to go along with this).

In Modern Tzuman, the syllabics are still used, but in day to day use the abugida is much more common, and is the system which has been transmitted to most other languages. The Coastal lands are the main exception, having derived syllabaries from the Tzuman abugida, in opposition to the alphabetic forms in use along the Emanar Venoršanid and up into the Alasol and Rægil regions.