Diachronics & Phonology
Anthologica Universe Atlas / Universes / Elmincár / * / Maotic / Diachronics & Phonology

The below is a work in progress, and is basically a copy of a text file on my computer I occasionally edit. I'm mainly putting it here just so I can look at it elsewhere if I so desire.
Proto-* to river speech
———————————-
- VjV and VrV > Vːː (thank you, Germanic) and VV > Vː. This eliminates hiātūs, which would be all too common otherwise. (/w/ had already shifted to /v̞/ and was not affected.) Intervocalic /r/ (not ʁ) would later be added due to rhotacism.
- Ins. Soróké has VjV > VV and VV unchanging, but few holdovers remain in this in Soróké and Kuelin.
- Northern consonant shift /tˀ/ > /t/ > /s/, /dˀ/ > /d/ > /z/ before vowels (excl. /ʁ/) or word-finally
- does not seem to happen after /n/—must be a prenasalization thing
- Epenthetic schwa (when? cf also class 7)
- Breaking of /iː/ (incl. /ij/) to /iə/, /uː/ (incl. /uw/) to /uə/
- Palatalization of dentals
- t⁽ʰ⁾ʲ > ts⁽ʰ⁾
- dʲ > dz
- sʲ > ʃ
* Billic, Soróké > ss
* Amain > ʃʃ
- zʲ > ʒ
* Billic, Soróké > zz
* Amain > ʒʒ
- lʲ > ʎ
* Billic > ll
* Soróké, Amain > ʎʎ
* Billic nʲ > nn
- Labialization: Cw > Cʷ
- /w/ > /v/ intervocalically & word-initially
* Túnic, Western interv. only
- Fronting of /oj uj/ > /øy yː/; /ew iw/ > /øw yw/
- Umlaut of /ɑ o u/ to /a ø y/ (incl. long) when /i/ follows
- Diphthong resolution (short vowels only):
- /ɑj aj ej/ > /aː eː iː/
- /aw ɑw ow/ > /ɑː oː uː/
- /iʁ eʁ aʁ ɑʁ oʁ uʁ/ > /eː aː ɑː ɑː ɑː oː/. Note: this does not occur word-finally.
- /øy/ > /øː/
Western vowels shortened before aspirates
- Dathrôs' law: Coda stops V_C lenite:
- /pʰ/ > /p/ > /f/
- /b/ > /v/
- /tʰ/ > /t/ > /s/
- /d/ > /z/
- /kʰ/ > /k/ > /x/
* Western > /ʃ/
- /g/ > /ɣ/
* Western > /ʒ/
- /qʰ/ > /q/ > /h/
* Kuelin, Túnic /qʰ/ > /q/ only
- Exceptions: any before /l r/ (but not before /n/), non-dentals before dentals
* Kuelin non-dentals before dentals affected
* Soróké assim. to /l r/
* Billic no fricativization (actually later strengthened)
Túnic, Kuelin Cʷ > Cw
Maotic Cʷ > C bordering rounded vowel
Kuelin stressed /i u y/ lowered (incl. long)
* Western only short
* Kuelin, Western, Maotic short before V
- This is somewhat irregular as a sound change
- /ʃ ʒ/ > /s z/ after consonants
- closed VNC > ṼC (does not affect final -n)
- Glottalization disappears
- /ʃ x/ debuc. to /h/, /ʒ ɣ/ to /Ø/
* Billic /ʒ/ > /j/
- Cʷ > alv. before /e i ø y/, > lab. otherwise
- coda /l/ > /ʎ/ after /e i/
* Billic DNO
- short nonnasal chain-shift /i/ > /e/ > /a/ > /ɑ/ > /o/ > /u/ (this affects /eə oə/)
Billic /ts/ > /ss/, /dz/ > /z/
- Unstressed schwa reduced after vowels, or when typical syncope allows.
* This varies greatly across dialects. Of note is Billic and Amain, which usually don't reduce /aə uə/ (esp. in the vocative and locative.) Soróké tends to vary on this—but usually loses it in inflectional endings.
- Rhotacism: intervocalic /z/ > /r/. (How does this interact with /ʁ/?))
* Billic DNO
* Túnic > /s/
Soróké, Amain intervocalic /p t k/ voiced
- l̥ > il, n̥ > in, m̥ > im, r̥ > ri
* Kuelin, Western > ul, un, um, ɑr?
Maotic, Kuelin, Billic any remaining geminates (incl. CCʰ) are shortened.
* Amain, Túnic DNO
* Soróké, Western previous vowel is lengthened
- Brightening of nonnasal /a e/ to /e i/ followed by /e i ø y/ (incl. long)
* Western DNO
- uvular > velar > palatal
- short /ɑ/ > /ə/
* Soróké, Amain stressed > /a/
* Billic > /o/
- long /ɑː/ breaks to /æɑ͡/
* Ins. Soróké, Amain > /ea/
* Billic > /oː/
- /w/,/j/,/z/ lost
- front rounded vowels defront
* Kuelin, Túnic, Ins. Soróké deround
Billic /ʁ/ lost
Billic /uə/ > /ɨ/
- final unaspirated stops C$ > Cs$; dentals -Ts$ > -s$ (compensatory lengthening?)
* Túnic only after /p t k/
* Billic DNO
- /ʎ/ > /j/, /ɫ/ > /w/
* Amain ɫ > g, ŋ before velar, or l before labial
* Soróké ɫ > ŋ (Ins. ?)
* Túnic DNO (allophones)
* Billic DNO
- everything denasalizes
* Billic DNO
- /ə/ > /e/
* Soróké, Western > a
- Secondary palatalization of /k/ > /s/ before /e i/
* Kuelin, Western DNO
Billic short /e ə/ > /i ɨ/
# Orthographic freeze
- /ae/ > /ai/
- /æɑ/ to /ao/ in open syllables
- Length distinction lost
- palatal merges with velar

This yields the following ablaut patterns:

Class 1: é/e/ao/ao/in/il
Class 2: í/a/o/á/an/ai
Class 3: ae/e/u/é/en/ei
Class 3b: ae/i/u/é/in/í
Class 4: á/o/ó/ao/on/ol
Class 5: ó/u/ú/ao/un/ul
Class 6: ú/u/ue/ó/un/ul
Class 7: e/Ø/u/ri?/in/il


Phonology:
m  n
p  t  c/k
b  d  g
ph  th ch/kh
f  s  h
v  r  r(r)
-i, l, dz, ts, tsh

a e i o u
á é í ó ú
â ê î ô û
ao ae ue [æɑ ai we]

Billic y (ɨ)