Amqoli loans are pluralized with kri / krim / kriv / krizh
and no -e.
Two sample declensions, vugon
'man' and oshruyira
'cigarette' (an Amqoli loan)
|ABS||vugon||shan vugne||oshruyira||kri oshruyira|
|ERG||vugom||sham vugne||oshruyiram||krim oshruyira|
|INS||vugni(v)||nav vugne||oshruyirani(v)||kriv oshruyira|
|LAT||vugonzha||shanj vugne||oshruyirazh||krizh oshruyira|
The instrumental case has become conflated with the postpositional and locative cases: all three functions are served by the same case. Linking -v- is common here: zakhamiv agham takh qari
"the woman eats soup with a spoon", but zakhami vugon ra takh qari
"the man eats soup with a spoon". The instrumental is also used to mark possessed nouns: shan tikhe
"some bowls of soup".
Nouns ending in -a have umlaut before mid-vowel endings: takh
The ergative case is also used for adjectival derivations and postpositions expressing movement from.
|T||M||k(A)- ||tA- |
|F||kE- ||vA- |
Affix attached if I DON'T KNOW, TODO
A = a if there's a following nonhigh vowel, e if following /i/, o if following /u/
E = e if following nonhigh vowel, otherwise i
O = o if following nonhigh vowel, otherwise u
NB: word-final voiced fricatives + affricates after stress-based lenition lenite further, and voiced stops > nasals
Present tense is unmarked.
Past tense is marked with närä
, which (unlike in Amqoli) takes absolutive marking in the place of the main verb.