In this section we deal with weights and measures used throughout Bredezhanya during the old days and nowadays.

It includes measurement systems of ancient Euremegadelanean peoples.

The ancient Hellesanid units of length, of Sateperan origin, are derived from the foot (303'636 mm or 30'36 cm), the base unity of the Satic system of length and distances. Sateperan divisors and multiples are inferred from the succession of Fibonacci (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 16…): therefore, the divisors are ½, 1/3, 1/5, 1/8, 1/16, and the multiples are x2, x3, x5, x8, x16.

½ foot (span) = 151’818 mm o 15’18 cm

1/3 of a foot (palm) = 101’212 mm o 10’12 cm

1/5 of a foot (finger) = 60’7272 mm o 6’07 cm

1/8 of a foot (inch) = 37’9545 mm o 3’8 cm

1/16 of a foot (nail) = 18’97725 mm o 1’9 cm

x2 feet (cubit) = 607’272 mm or 60’73 cm

x3 feet (step) = 910’908 mm, 91’09 cm or 0’91 m

½ cana (vara) = 759’09 mm or 75’91 cm

x5 feet (cane) = 1518’18 mm, 151’82 cm or 1’52 m

x8 feet or x4 cubits (height) = 2429’088 mm, 242’91 cm or 2’43 m

x16 feet or x8 cubits (large cubit) = 4858’176 mm, 485’82 cm or 4’86 m

x10 steps (pass) = 910’9 cm or 9’11 m

x500 steps (stade) = 45.545 cm, 455’45 m or 0’46 km

x1.000 steps or x2 stades (mile) = 910’9 m or 0’91 km

x5 miles (league) = 4.554’5 m or 4’55 km

x10 leagues (large league) = 45.545 m or 45’5 km

harni | m | The nail equals 1/16 of a foot (18’97725 mm or 1’9 cm) according to Sateperan tradition. | |

tempe | tp | f | The inch measures, according to Sateperan tradition, 1/8 of a foot (37’9545 mm or 3’8 cm). The name comes from Peran tigampe, feminine of tigampi "thumb". |

ghèz | g | m | The finger equals 1/5 of a foot (60’7272 mm or 6’07 cm). The name comes from Peran getsu "finger", from Sate k^{h}ar–it– "finger, touch". The plural of ghèz is ghèus. |

paŀle | pl | f | The palm measures 1/3 of a foot (101’212 mm or 10’12 cm). From Peran nbarabolu, from Sate par–ad– "hand, palm". |

pad | pd | m | The span equals half a foot (151’818 mm or 15’18 cm). The name comes from Peran pādu "foot", from Sate par–ad– "hand, palm". |

madà | md | m | The foot measures 303’636 mm or 30’36 cm, and is the basis of the whole Sateperan measure system. The Sarden variant, the madà ghisomant "imperial feet", is 46’8 cm. The name comes from Peran matanu foot", from matan– "sole, base, pedestal", from Sate mat–an– "base", from mat– "to resist, to endure, to persist". |

quetne | qt | m | The cubit measures two feet (607’272 mm or 60’73 cm). The name has a Sate origin, from ke-wu-te-na "elbow", from kūt–an– "elbow". |

ganaf | gf | m | The vara equals half a cane or five spans (759’09 mm or 75’91 cm). It's the Peran approximation to the Targas vara, measuring three feet (91’08 cm), of Davarian origin (qanaf "swagger stick, staff"). |

turse | ts | f | The Sateperan step measures three feet (91’09 cm or 0’91 m), but the step of Targas measures 3’5, this is three feet and one span (1062’726 mm or 106’27 cm). The Sarden step is 96’25 cm long. The name is the Hellesan word for "step", postverbal derivation of tursar "to pass by". It's the origin of the current tilar "metre", base of the official length measure throughout Taura. |

parmadà | pm | m | The Sateperan cane measures five feet (151’82 cm or 1’52 m). There were various canes in the Old Age, the most common ones being the cane of Labirença (155’5 cm or 1’56 m) and the sailor cane, of six imperial feet (280’8 cm or 2’8 m). The name comes from Peran partnamatanas "five feet". |

malce | ml | f | The height measures eight feet or four cubits (242’91 cm or 2’43 m). So named because it was used to measure heights, especially those of buildings. |

quetnatze | qz | f | The large cubit equals sixteen feet or eight cubits (485’82 cm or 4’86 m). |

itanedi | it | m | The stade, one of the oldest length measures, of Satic origin, equals 500 steps (45.545 cm, 455’45 m or 0’46 km). |

màrie | m | f | The mile, defined as "one thousand steps" or "two stades" (91.090 cm, 910’9 m or 0’91 km). The name derives from mar "(one) thousand". |

sagol | sl | m | The league, equal to five miles (4.554’5 m o 4’55 km) and considered the distance "a healthy and strong horse can gallop thorugh good roads before getting exhausted". The name comes from Middle Peran saktgadli, from Archaic Peran sakad– or sakar– "fast" + tigaduli "horse". |

marsagol | mg | f | The large league, making ten leagues (45.545 m o 45’5 km), is defined as "a journey of slow horse travel through good roads". |

The origin of the

The

The use of number 60 and its divisors and multiples in time reckoning is thanks to the ancient Cassardians. The division of the year in 360 days, according to the lunisolar calendar, used by Cassardians, gave also the division of the circle in 360 degrees and, that of the day, in 6 major periods, anyone of which had 60 minor periods (6 x 60 = 360).

Further forward the system became a little more complex when shorter periods where needed to ease the use of the calendar for domestic purposes. Cassardian astronomers, inspired by the circle of 360°, divided the day into 36 equal periods. The 36 hour day was born, in which each hour lasts 40 minutes o 2.400 seconds.

Some divisions of the day: Ancient Cassardian (yellow and orange), Bredezhanian or

Peran-Sarden Cicle (blue), Terran division (magenta), and Elnid Cicle (green).

Peran-Sarden Cicle (blue), Terran division (magenta), and Elnid Cicle (green).

One day has 86,400 seconds. If it's divided into 360 parts (in the image above small divisions of the outer ring) that means that each part lasts 240 seconds (4 minutes). Therefore each major period in the Ancient Cassardian division lasted 14,400 seconds (240 minutes or 4 hours); the solar cicle, in addition, was divided into two large halves with dawn (beginning of the day) and sunset (end of the day) as the main axis. The Bredezhanian calendar, currently the most used in Taura, uses the Peran-Sarden division of the solar cicle: days of 36 oncis (which we can translate as "hours", although any

The units of measurement currently used in Bredezhanya and Taura are accountable to the International System of Measures (in Hellean,

Below we give a more detailed explanation of each physical magnitude and its respective unit. Between brackets the gender of the name, the plural form of that noun and its representative symbol are given.

The

1 tilar equals, more or less, 1 meter, since 1 t = 96.25 cm, which the exact measure of the ancient Sarden step, based on the older Peran step, with 93.1 cm. From tilar minor and major units are derived in a decimal base.

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Basically 1 seis is the same as 1 second; therefore since 40 seis make 1 missar and 40 missars equal 1 onç, we can say that 1 onç = 40 minutes, or 120 missars = 3 hours. The day is divided into 36 oncis.

The

It's defined with a centigrade scale that assigns 0 to the average atmospheric temperature at sea level at the terrestrial poles (0 f = 0°C) and 100 to the median of the atmospheric temperature above the equator (-75°C) and the poles (-45°C) in the tropopause (100 f = 60°C).

In the scientific area, though, the ‘laboratory degrees’ (

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