Units of measurement
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In this section we deal with weights and measures used throughout Bredezhanya during the old days and nowadays.

Old units of measurement

It includes measurement systems of ancient Euremegadelanean peoples.

Length and distance

The ancient Hellesanid units of length, of Sateperan origin, are derived from the foot (303'636 mm or 30'36 cm), the base unity of the Satic system of length and distances. Sateperan divisors and multiples are inferred from the succession of Fibonacci (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 16…): therefore, the divisors are ½, 1/3, 1/5, 1/8, 1/16, and the multiples are x2, x3, x5, x8, x16.

Divisors of foot
½ foot (span) = 151’818 mm o 15’18 cm
1/3 of a foot (palm) = 101’212 mm o 10’12 cm
1/5 of a foot (finger) = 60’7272 mm o 6’07 cm
1/8 of a foot (inch) = 37’9545 mm o 3’8 cm
1/16 of a foot (nail) = 18’97725 mm o 1’9 cm

Multiples of foot
x2 feet (cubit) = 607’272 mm or 60’73 cm
x3 feet (step) = 910’908 mm, 91’09 cm or 0’91 m
½ cana (vara) = 759’09 mm or 75’91 cm
x5 feet (cane) = 1518’18 mm, 151’82 cm or 1’52 m
x8 feet or x4 cubits (height) = 2429’088 mm, 242’91 cm or 2’43 m
x16 feet or x8 cubits (large cubit) = 4858’176 mm, 485’82 cm or 4’86 m
x10 steps (pass) = 910’9 cm or 9’11 m
x500 steps (stade) = 45.545 cm, 455’45 m or 0’46 km
x1.000 steps or x2 stades (mile) = 910’9 m or 0’91 km
x5 miles (league) = 4.554’5 m or 4’55 km
x10 leagues (large league) = 45.545 m or 45’5 km

The nail equals 1/16 of a foot (18’97725 mm or 1’9 cm) according to Sateperan tradition.
The inch measures, according to Sateperan tradition, 1/8 of a foot (37’9545 mm or 3’8 cm). The name comes from Peran tigampe, feminine of tigampi "thumb".
The finger equals 1/5 of a foot (60’7272 mm or 6’07 cm). The name comes from Peran getsu "finger", from Sate khar–it "finger, touch". The plural of ghèz is ghèus.
The palm measures 1/3 of a foot (101’212 mm or 10’12 cm). From Peran nbarabolu, from Sate par–ad "hand, palm".
The span equals half a foot (151’818 mm or 15’18 cm). The name comes from Peran pādu "foot", from Sate par–ad "hand, palm".
The foot measures 303’636 mm or 30’36 cm, and is the basis of the whole Sateperan measure system. The Sarden variant, the madà ghisomant "imperial feet", is 46’8 cm. The name comes from Peran matanu foot", from matan "sole, base, pedestal", from Sate mat–an "base", from mat "to resist, to endure, to persist".
The cubit measures two feet (607’272 mm or 60’73 cm). The name has a Sate origin, from ke-wu-te-na "elbow", from kūt–an "elbow".
The vara equals half a cane or five spans (759’09 mm or 75’91 cm). It's the Peran approximation to the Targas vara, measuring three feet (91’08 cm), of Davarian origin (qanaf "swagger stick, staff").
The Sateperan step measures three feet (91’09 cm or 0’91 m), but the step of Targas measures 3’5, this is three feet and one span (1062’726 mm or 106’27 cm). The Sarden step is 96’25 cm long. The name is the Hellesan word for "step", postverbal derivation of tursar "to pass by". It's the origin of the current tilar "metre", base of the official length measure throughout Taura.
The Sateperan cane measures five feet (151’82 cm or 1’52 m). There were various canes in the Old Age, the most common ones being the cane of Labirença (155’5 cm or 1’56 m) and the sailor cane, of six imperial feet (280’8 cm or 2’8 m). The name comes from Peran partnamatanas "five feet".
The height measures eight feet or four cubits (242’91 cm or 2’43 m). So named because it was used to measure heights, especially those of buildings.
The large cubit equals sixteen feet or eight cubits (485’82 cm or 4’86 m).
The stade, one of the oldest length measures, of Satic origin, equals 500 steps (45.545 cm, 455’45 m or 0’46 km).
The mile, defined as "one thousand steps" or "two stades" (91.090 cm, 910’9 m or 0’91 km). The name derives from mar "(one) thousand".
The league, equal to five miles (4.554’5 m o 4’55 km) and considered the distance "a healthy and strong horse can gallop thorugh good roads before getting exhausted". The name comes from Middle Peran saktgadli, from Archaic Peran sakad or sakar– "fast" + tigaduli "horse".
The large league, making ten leagues (45.545 m o 45’5 km), is defined as "a journey of slow horse travel through good roads".

The origin of the pad is unknown, but it could perfectly be of Sate origin; it is believed that the Peran span measured, more or less, the same as the current one. In Imperial Measures and Rules it's briefly mentioned, saying "extensively used, common thorughout the Megadelanya […], with little error margin in the measure's variation”.

Free measures
The dag (m; pl. dags) is the distance between the tip of the thumb and the tip of the index, both forming the most rectangle angle possible.


The use of number 60 and its divisors and multiples in time reckoning is thanks to the ancient Cassardians. The division of the year in 360 days, according to the lunisolar calendar, used by Cassardians, gave also the division of the circle in 360 degrees and, that of the day, in 6 major periods, anyone of which had 60 minor periods (6 x 60 = 360).
    Further forward the system became a little more complex when shorter periods where needed to ease the use of the calendar for domestic purposes. Cassardian astronomers, inspired by the circle of 360°, divided the day into 36 equal periods. The 36 hour day was born, in which each hour lasts 40 minutes o 2.400 seconds.

Some divisions of the day: Ancient Cassardian (yellow and orange), Bredezhanian or
Peran-Sarden Cicle (blue), Terran division (magenta), and Elnid Cicle (green).

One day has 86,400 seconds. If it's divided into 360 parts (in the image above small divisions of the outer ring) that means that each part lasts 240 seconds (4 minutes). Therefore each major period in the Ancient Cassardian division lasted 14,400 seconds (240 minutes or 4 hours); the solar cicle, in addition, was divided into two large halves with dawn (beginning of the day) and sunset (end of the day) as the main axis. The Bredezhanian calendar, currently the most used in Taura, uses the Peran-Sarden division of the solar cicle: days of 36 oncis (which we can translate as "hours", although any onç lasts 40 minutes), and with two axis: ‘dawn – sunset’ and ‘midday – midnight’. Elns, on the other hand, did like ancient Cassardian: they divided the day in six periods, but with a ‘midday – midnight’ central axis.

Current units of measurement

The units of measurement currently used in Bredezhanya and Taura are accountable to the International System of Measures (in Hellean, Mistarmi Samandacnarn na Gatmes).

Definitions of the units

Below we give a more detailed explanation of each physical magnitude and its respective unit. Between brackets the gender of the name, the plural form of that noun and its representative symbol are given.

The tilar (m; pl. tilars; symbol: t) is the basic length measure. The name comes from Peran tilaras "degree; unit of mesurement", from Sate tīr–ar "unit of measurement".
    1 tilar equals, more or less, 1 meter, since 1 t = 96.25 cm, which the exact measure of the ancient Sarden step, based on the older Peran step, with 93.1 cm. From tilar minor and major units are derived in a decimal base.

The seis (m; pl. seis; symbol: s) is the basic unit of time. The name comes from Peran saski "second, instant".
    Basically 1 seis is the same as 1 second; therefore since 40 seis make 1 missar and 40 missars equal 1 onç, we can say that 1 onç = 40 minutes, or 120 missars = 3 hours. The day is divided into 36 oncis.

The fou (f; pl. fous; symbol: f) is the basic unit of thermodynamic temperature. The name comes from Old Hellesan fou "warmth", from Peran fa(g)usu, from Archaic Peran fa(g)us– "warmth", from Sate phag–us "to heat (up), to warm (up)".
    It's defined with a centigrade scale that assigns 0 to the average atmospheric temperature at sea level at the terrestrial poles (0 f = 0°C) and 100 to the median of the atmospheric temperature above the equator (-75°C) and the poles (-45°C) in the tropopause (100 f = 60°C).
    In the scientific area, though, the ‘laboratory degrees’ (fou trigitiarant; symbol: ft) are also used, the variant in which points 0 and 100 are defined by the triple point (0 ft = 0°C) and the critical point (100 ft = 374°C) of water.

The toró (m; pl. torons; symbol: tr) is the basic unit of mass. The name comes from Peran toronu "eight with a hole to pass a string", from Sate tōr–un "loom weight, counterweight".

The flare (m; pl. flares; symbol: fl) is the basic unit of luminous intensity.

The talabre (m; pl. talabres; symbol: tb) is the basic unit of pressure and stress.

The hàrstem (m; pl. hàrstems; symbol: h) is the basic unit of force.

The raló (m; pl. ralons; symbol: rl) is the basic unit of energy, amount of heat and work.

The estom (m; pl. estoms; symbol: et) is basic unit of amount of energy converted, used or dissipated in one second.

The calcine (f; pl. calcines; symbol: ca) is the basic unit of thermic capacity or calorific capacity.

The pire (f; pl. pires; symbol: p) is the basic unit of energy consumed by a machine with a power of 1,000 estoms in 1 onç.

The quont (m; pl. quonts; symbol: qn) is the basic unit of amount of molecular matter.

The àŀler (m; pl. àŀlers; symbol: al) is the basic unit of electrical potential difference or electromotive force.

The elm (m; pl. elms; symbol: el) is the basic unit of electric current.

The roure (m; pl. roures; symbol: ro) is the basic unit of radioactivity.

The langa (f; pl. langas; symbol: lg) is the basic unit of catalytic activity. The name comes from Archaic Peran lang– "loose, weak", from Sate rāg "to loose, to free; to separate".