Hellesan colours
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Hellesan colours


List with the most common colour names in Hellesan. The numbers to the right of every name are their respective RGB codes.

Black


Black is the absence of light and, therefore, of colour, but it's considered a colour by all cultures of Taura. Black is the colour of soot and coal, of ebony and onyx.

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Cultural aspects


Perans, like many other ancient peoples, had black as one of the main colours and didn't distinguish it from darker shades of blue, green, grey and brown except for blantsiardu (in Hellesan, blansyard), a metallic black. Isord is a bluish black used in reference to dark seas and forests; it appears once and for the first time in the Fersead as isurdu, probably as a poetic name, although during the Middle Peran period it became popular enough as to be used to talk about the typical colour of the sea and the woods, to which Ancient Perans referred to using glamas, a colour that grouped blue, green, purple and silver. For all practical purposes blansyard is not different from nitz given the difficulty of representing the colour black with a metallic highlight in many mediums, but in Ancient Peran blantsiardu was a different colour from nitsu, the common black, even when represented pictorially. Murtumne is a rather recent name to refer to the dark grey that one perceives in absence of light; ir more or less equivalent to the Dwarvish concept of durum “dark, obscurity” and German eigengrau. Finally grey-brown and brownish-grey (furs) are also considered among blacks, although both are better catalogued among browns according to modern criteria.

In most Euremegadelanean cultures it is not customary to consider black and very dark shades the colours of mourning, but depending on the culture white or sky blue is used, or both, colours that allude to concepts like clarity, sincerity, purity and hope.

Etymology and other names


The two names for black are nitz "black" (from Peran nitsu) and dalmàs "dusk” (from Peran dalmansu “obscurity, dusk”, taken from Sarden daramnsés "black, blackened, dark, dusk”, which in turn comes from the Sardanesc root daram– "black"), one of the few Sardanesc roots of Dwarvish origin, which is the base for durum "dusk, obscurity", one of the three black colours of the archaic Dwarvish cultures. Blansyard is from Peran blantsiardu, the name given to blackberries, of a shiny black with bluish and purple highlights.

White


White is the sum of all colours. It's the colour of snow and marble, of ivory and milk. There are no shades of white that are considered transitions to the other colours except in those cases of whites with a certain touch of another colour, as in bluish white, transition to blue.

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Cultural aspects


White is one of two colours ―the other one is black― known with one or various names in all Tauran languages.

White is one of the colours for mourning among Euremegadelanean peoples together with sky blue, since it symbolizes ideas like clarity, sincerity, purity and hope, ideas closely tied to death and the afterworld.

Etymology and other names


Ceu (femenine ceule) and aire (the same in femenine) are, in Hellesan, the generic names for white; the first one comes from Megadelanean kaelu or kadelu, while the second comes from Peran airu, both with the exact same meaning. The concept of birght white, metallic white or snowy white, expressed with nis “snow”, clau “clear” and mairés, is that of pure white, unblemished, with a well clear and sprakling appearance. The word mairés comes from Sarden mairesos “luminous white”, derived from mares “marble” and by contamination of Peran airu “white”.
    Among whites with a shade of any other colour the most common are beige, bluish white and white with a brownish touch. About beige, in Hellesan noig or syoc, we can say that is a yellowish white, the colour of parchment and creme. Clear beige, like the shade represented above, is considered the colour of neutrality and universality and it's used, among others, by diplomatic representatives, referees and judges. Concerning the two names of bluish white, cais or cadis (femenine caisse or càdisse), come from Sarden kades, taken from Davarian kadejsh, name of a very appreciated cloth died the same colour, fabricated in Davarian cities and exported throughout the Euremegadelania since ancient times; nowadays càdisse is still used to name that cloth. Among brownish whites we emphasize two: pearl and ivory, the typical shades of what their names mean. Marromant, due to its resemblance to clear beige, is also one of the shades used as a symbol of neutrality, although that one is of a more white shade than this one.
    Other names for white include the adjectives cevant “off-white” and cevantís “whitish”.

Red


Red is the colour of blood and the common poppy, of grape and strawberries. Is a very abundant colour in nature and can change towards orange or violet shades.
    Naufe "flame" is considered the transitional colour between reds and oranges, viré "ruby" is considered the transitional colour between reds and purples, and rogast "rust" is the transitional colour between reds and browns.

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Cultural aspects


Due to its strong ties with heart and blood, and most specially with the idea of shed or warm blood and a heart beating strong, red shades are associated with courage and a brave death in the battlefield as well as with strength, passion, rage or joy, concepts that refer to moments or feelings in which blood tends to concentrate near the skin, reddening it. Orangish reds, like scarlet, vermillion or flame, are strongly tied to the idea of astuteness and inventiveness, qualities represented by Rogall, a genius represented as a burning squirrel in the sacred Sateperan cult.
    More specifically the scarlet shade (feniç) was already priced in Antiquity, since the tincture of that colour was obtained from the Cassardian cochineal (Porphyrophora hamelii) and its production was hard enough. Due to this tincture's high price the colour was already associated to wealth, power and luxury since ancient times, being the preferred among Cassardian ladies and Marnuntian priests, which associated this shade with the colour of the scarlet ibis, from which the Hellesan word for the shade takes its name.
    The viré "ruby" shade, on the other hand, has been related with prostitution among the Megadelanea peoples. The origin if such relation is not clear at all, but it is said that among prostitutes was popular to paint their lips with this shade, and from that the trend passed to clothing. Between the 32nd and 33rd centuries wealthy prostitutes dressed in ruby, including gloves, hats and shoes, as a symbol of fortune and, therefore, of good health, whereas in Cassardian and other peoples of the Rodis ruby has always been considered a luck and strengh bearer stone, and for that reason it has been used since time immemorial to adorn warriors' weapons, shileds and armours. Consequently ruby shade has adorned and adorns the clothings of high rank warriors and soldiers as well as these of kings military nobles.

Etymology and other names


Gualda comes from Middle Peran gualta "yellowish red", probably from Archaic Peran *buers– (the same origin as guès "blood"), which comes from Sate phar– “to exit, to leave a place”. Gair and guaire come from Sardaniese guaire, from Middle Peran guarnir "yellowish red", literally "that yellow-reddens", from guar– “red” + –nir (agent suffix), probably from Archaic Peran *buers–, the same origin as gualda. Gairant is formed upon gair "yellowish red" + –ant (an adjectival suffix). Gairol comes from Archaic Hellesan and Late Peran gairoles, from Sardaniese gaeroles, from Peran giaunir "yellowish red", from Archaic Peran gal– "red"; its relation with Madinesian kharyûl "yellowish red" and khâr "red" is not clear at all. Naufe literally means "flame". Cirent would come from Common Megadelanean theira "bonfire", from Madinesian thîr "fire". Medangís and medià come from Peran midianu, from midiu "reddish orange, yellowish red". Feniç "scarlet" is, in fact, the Hellesan name of scarlet ibis, a bird from the Madana worshipped byMarnuntian priests. Guès and guesatz literally mean "blood" i "bleeding", and it's also literal the  name ro(g)ast "rust". Viré is one of the names given to rubies, and is of Cassardian origin Fardegaire "terracotta" means "yellowish-red earth". Arró comes from Lansese arronse or Enolian arronzi, both "full-grown, mature", related to Hellesan renatz "full-grown (fruit)".

Yellow


Yellow is the colour of the Sun and lemons, of weaver's broom flowers and the saffron spice. Yellow transitions towards green with its greenish yellow shades, and towards orange with shades like saffron and dark amber.

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Cultural aspects


Generally speaking Megadelanian cultures differentiate both yellow and orange, considering them different colours, alhtough in ancient times Bernic peoples considered the darkest shades among browns, while the lightest shades of orange and yellow were considered among yellows. That tradition still lives in the heraldic and vexillological customs of the Euredean peoples of Bernic tradition. On the other hand Rodisian cultures, ancient and modern, view reds, clear browns and dark oranges as one single colours, puting amber as a dark shade of yellow.
    Due to its resemblance with gold's proper shade, it's the colour that simbolixes material wealth, and due to being associated with the colour of the Sun and of light it's also the preferred color to represent rulers' power and dignity.

Etymology and other names


Jond and cerol are the most cmmon names in Hellesan to name yellow. Cerol is related to cerole "lemon", and this name, when used in a restrictive way, refers to the lemon skin's colour or a bright and vivid yellow shade. The word jond comes from old Fernond gjeon "yellow", from the Bernic root gayo "bright, shiny", from which the name for the Sun is also derived.

Blue


Blue is the colour of the sea and the sky, of sapphires and blueberry. Mazzare is considered the transitional colour between blues and purples, while carde syet is the one between blues and greens.

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Cultural aspects


To many cultures of Antiquity there was no distinct names for blue and gree, and this was the case for Perans, who used glamas to talk about a colour that grouped blues, greens and even silver. Peoples of the Madana didn't differentiate between shades of blue and green, and even today madanigh has azavhez for "blue and green". Among the nordish peoples the root berel– grouped dark blue and black, being xxx used for lighter shades of blue, which grouped it with light green and greenish shades of yellow, too. Cassardian, on the other hand, separates light blue (xxx) and dark blue (xxx) as different colours, and within the dark blue concept includes purple; it also differentiates blue from green (xxx) and from black (xxx), but in the old tradition dark-skinned peoples have been named xxx “green burnt”.

Being the colour of the sea and the sky, both spaces of an immense vastness, blue is a symbol of freedom, greatness, infinity and new schemes on the horizon. It's, also, the colour of harmony and peace, which makes it very popular in coat of arms and flags. In the Cassardian culture dark shades of Persian Indigo (mazzare) are used in mourning due to the connection of this colour with deceased people and their spirits. The tradition of painting the face dark blue to commemorate the deceased, whether in the Day of the Dead or in wakes and burials, comes from Cassardia and the Rodis.
    Darnís is a little luminous variant of blue, although not too dark. It's one of the two shades used in Bredezhaniese heraldry to represent blue; specifically darnís murt, used as the dark counterpart for eravern.
    Glam llirant is the colour associated with royalty in the Hellesan culture, as it is used by the other Megadelanean peoples through cultural inheritance. Together with eravern can be seen, for example, in the flag of Hellea. The main reason for that association would the indigo used to dye the rich robes of ancient monarchs which, it is thought, also stained these monarch's pale skins, giving them a bluish skin. That was rapidly and easily associated with the bluish skin that gods have according to the Euremegadelanean beliefs systems.

Etymology and other names


Glam is the Hellesan generic name for blue. The other two most common names are gan and mai. Glam comes from Peran glamas or Megadelanean glama, which seems to be a Sate construction gar “ice; smooth, polished” or Megadelanean gala “to shine, to bright” + Peran glamas "blue, green, purple and silver" (origin of Hellesan glam "blue"), from an older maganu “deep blue, dark blue”, from which the Hellesan word mai derives. The name Megadelanya (Megadelanean in English) comes in part from one of these roots: maganu “deep blue” + adelan “linen, cloth”.

Green


Green is the colour of plants, especially of grass and tender foliage. It is, as well, the colour of certain fruits like pears or olives, and of certain minerals like, for example, jade and emerald.
    Carde syet “old copper” is considered the transtion colour between greens and blues, while alea “olive” is the step between brown shades while marf-cerol “green-yellow” represents the transition towards yellows. Marf clau "light green" can refer to leaf green and apple green shades.

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Cultural aspects


In many cultures green is viewed as a positive colour, been tied to concepts like youth, life and vicacity, clam or peace. The most blueish shades, though, can refer to negative or ambivalent ideas; for example, ratze syet as well as carde syet are used to symbolize decadence, stagnation, senility or decrepitude. In Hellesan expressions like àger ratze syet “to be old bronze” and glam sam carde “blue like copper” mean having lost most of the former value, to have become unusable, to be old-fashioned or to be obsolete.
    Ivy colour symbolizes prosperity and fertility, and is the shade of green tied to marriage, weddings and family, something not surprising when in the Hellesan tradition ivy is the plant that represents marriage.

Etymology and other names


Ancient Perans had a word, glamas, that brought together the shades of blue, green and purple, and the colour of silver. Lately they adopted from sardens the word maryphon “vibrant blueish” or “vivid blueish” to refer to green with marfas, origin of Hellesan marf "green".
    Armascan green is so called because of the ancient fabric dyed in that shade of green and originary to Central Armasca through the Mazaghi caravan routes.

Grey


Grey is the colour of ash and some metals, of rain clouds and many rocks. It's also a pretty common colour in certain animal skins, furs and plumages like owls, elephants and dolphins. There are warmer or colder shades of grey depending on the amount of other colours in the mix. Neutral is a quite neutral colour that can transition to any other colour, although people use to consider it a lighter shade of black.

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Cultural aspects


In many ancient Tauran cultures grey wasn't a colour in its own right but a gradation of black. This is still the idea in many modern cultures, where the availability of a wide range of inks and artificial paints break the old barriers of natural pigments and allow accepting as colours a wider range of shades, making the concept of grey as a mere shade of black an exception to the rule.

Etymology and other names


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Brown


Brown is the colour of wood and humid earth, and of many mineral pigments. It is also the colour of a wide range of furs and plumages as well as many animal skins and fruits. Reddish shades like rogast “rust”, gafard “chestnut-like” and farde gairant “sienna” are considered the trasition between browns and reds.

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Cultural aspects


The English concept of brown is not too different from that represented by berdà and nogant, the two words used by Hellesan to refer to the colour resulting from mixing red, black and yellow or red, yellow and blue. To the ancient peoples, though, the concept could vary enormously, even within a small geographic area we could find differences even though brown being one of the most abundant colours in ancient and prehistoric art thanks to the large amount of natural pigments like umber or ochre, among many others.
    It's known that almost all ancient Megadelanean peoples had words to refer to dark shades of black and red, basically used to talk about animal furs, wood and earth. Thus Megadelanean has the root bhru– "brown", which gave Peran furu (from which Hellesan fur "grey-brown, brownish grey"), Bernic brund, Madinesian vheroz or Rodisant phero. Iscanian people didn't have the concept of grey-brown or brown as we know it today: darker shades were considered within black together with most shades of blue, while lighter browns, like ochre or copper, were considered shades of red or yellow. That's the reason why in Iscanian myths about the Gagant wars sources talk about «the blood-coloured earth» or «Lämnarott sheep, with their fur like the colour of the sea».
    Concerning Perans ancient sources often talk about the colour of certain elements that we tie to the idea of brown or grey-brown. In the Fersead references to the colour of flocks and herds are abundant, which are referred as «the colour of sheep» and «the colour of cattle», although in two occasions sheep wool with which Dainae wove Ferseus' robes is qualified as «the colour of dusk», which inevitably must refer to a dark shade. In the Fersead and other later works, about the sea it is repeatedlt said that is of the colour of bronze («the sea like bronze», «the bronze-coloured sea»), and in three occasions the word xxxx appears, literally "of cypress" to imply the colour of the sea, although it is argued that it should be a dark shade with a certain green or blue touch.

Etymology and other names


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Orange


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Cultural aspects


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Etymology and other names


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Purple


Purple, a mix of blue and red, is the colour of dye obtained from certain sea snails known by the name Murex. In its more violet shades is a colour present in many flowers, like the saffron flower, the heartsease or the iris. It's also the colour of aubergines, and can be obtained from minerals like manganese, hematite or purpurite.
    Mavil, which appears in two variants: aran “indigo” and mazzare “persian indigo”, is considered the transition colour between purple and blue shades. Viré “ruby” is considered the transition between purple and red.

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Cultural aspects


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Etymology and other names


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Moisse and mosye come from Lanse moèisse, adaptation of Tassalean mòzh the evolution of Peran meudiu, from Middle Peran midiue “reddish cheek” or Sarden mydion “reddish purple, magenta” (consider also Peran maudisas "carnation").

Ancient colours


El concepte de color antic (sanís feruc, en heŀleu) fa referència a una varietat de colors heretats del perà que no encaixen en l’actual idea de color dels heŀlesans. Això és així perquè per als perans la percepció cultural dels diversos colors existents era diferent a la nostra en com a mínim dos punts: el primer, que sota un sol terme s’hi podien encabir diverses tonalitats que avui considerem colors amb dret propi i, segon, que certs colors amb acabats metàŀlics o tornassolats eren vistos com a colors diferents de les seves versions mats. Els colors en qüestió són el veli, el peure, el capri, el tarsyent, l’eralme, el gable, el blansyard, el lhaurès i el rogall.

Veli


S’anomena veli una degradació de vermell o bru a un color groguenc, ja siguin tonalitats clares com el llimona o el crema, o més fosques com el daurat. Les tonalitats intermèdies que en resulten són ataronjades i rosades. El mot ja és testimoniat en perà (bieliu) i sardè (uelios) per a referir-se a un color que no distingia aqueixes tonalitats, si bé l’origen del mot és madani (vitl– “llum del sol; brillantor del sol”) a través d’alguna llengua rodisenca com el davari (wîlya). El perà es referia al groc com a kereli “llimona” i al vermell com a buers “sang”, i no distingia aquests del taronja o el rosa perquè no els considerava pròpiament colors, si bé el roig o vermell groguenc fou representat en perà mitjà per l’adjectiu midianu “galtaflorit”, de midiue “galta enrojida”.

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En la natura en trobem molts exemples, de veli. Sense anar més lluny els colors de moltes fulles i boscos a la tardor presenten aqueixes tonalitats, i també les trobem en fruites com pomes i préssecs, en la gent pèl-roja i en pelatges d’animals com les guineus o els gossos. Les tonalitats brunes apareixen especialment en la cervesa.

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Peure


El peure és la transició del verd al vermell passant per un color intermedi amb una tonalitat daurada fosca, propera a l’or metàŀlic (lhaurès tachírid) o el bronze metàŀlic (ratze tachírid). La menció més antiga del mot apareix dues vegades en documents palatins sates com a pu-u-re, i es creu que fa referència a productes d’horta ―fruites o hortalisses― a mig madurar, els quals presentarien tonalitats vermellenques i verdoses fruit del procés de maduració. Reapareix en perà com a peburu en alguns textos, el context dels quals dóna a entendre el mateix que en sate: el color de la fruita colrada madurant.

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El peure es troba en aquelles fruites i hortalisses que estan en procés de maduració i presenten tonalitats verdes i vermelles amb gradacions intermèdies.

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Capri


El capri és un color que bascula entre els tons vermellencs i els porprats amb tonalitats rosades entremig, des del robí fins al rosa passant pel malva, i amb un aspecte tornassolat o metàŀlic. És un dels colors antics que no té un origen directament sàtic, ja que fa referència al porpra de les robes de seda dels reis cassardis, a les quals se’ls feia un tractament durant el tintat perquè adquirissin un acabat tornassolat. El nom capri prové del davari qoparis, nom donat al moŀlusc murex, del qual se’n feia el tint conegut en heŀlesà com aspre llirant “porpra reial”, és a dir, el porpra de Tir.

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A part de ser el color de la secreció d’alguns moŀluscs i dels tints que se’n deriven el capri també es troba en altres elements naturals com els camps de lavanda, la flor del card o el color del cel quan es pon el sol.

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Dessota es mostra el moŀlusc murex amb la seva secreció (dalt a l’esquerra) seguit d’exemples de seda cassàrdia tenyides de porpra reial amb la tècnica que permet un acabat tornassolat amb reflexos diversos, origen del color capri.

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Tarsyent


El tarsyent representa la transició d’un negre blavós o blau molt fosc (en heŀleu, isord) a un color clar que varia entre el blanc, el beix o el perla. El nom prové de l’heŀleu arcaic tarscente, manlleu del fernond tarstjan “foscant”, i per això no és estrany que antigament i encara avui sigui el color associat amb la matinada i el vespre.

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En la natura aquest color es pot veure en els cels quan s’aclareixen (durant la matinada) o enfosqueixen (al capvespre i el vespre, segons el moment de l’any) i en algunes pells d’animals tals com les d’elefants i dofins, ambdós sagrats per a perans i heŀlesans. És també un dels colors predominants en molts paisatges hivernals gràcies a l’efecte de les boires i la neu.

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Eralme


El mot perà glamas és sovint traduït com a “blau” perquè aquest evolucionà vers l’heŀleu glam “blau”, però per als antics perans el concepte glamas abraçava totes les tonalitats que els heŀleus consideren que pertanyen al blau, així com també les tonalitats de verd amb poc o gens de groc i, fins i tot, el color de l’argent, avui generalment representat amb el gris clar. Més endavant els perans adoptaren maryphon dels sardens, un mot d’origen madinès que significa “blavós vibrant” o “blavós vívid”, el qual devia ésser considerat com una mera tonalitat de maraz “blau”; maryphon és l’origen de l’heŀleu marf “verd”.
    Abans d’aquesta evolució de glamas, però, els perans ja havien desenvolupat un mot per a un tipus concret de blau que, de fet, és una degradació del blau intens vers el blanc blavenc: erbalamas, clarament un compost del perà antic erbalu “cel” i glamas “blau” que podria ésser traduït com a “aeroblau”. El poeta Edovi deu ser la font antiga que més vegades ha usat aquest mot en les seves obres i escrits personals, i és important fer notar que la majoria de les vegades l’usà per a referir-se al “color del cel matinenc després d’una nit plujosa”, tal com ell mateix el definí. Alguns historiadors creuen que fou el propi Edovi el creador del nom, però això no és segur; sigui com sigui el cel clar del matí sembla haver estat l’origen de la percepció d’aquest color, especialment quan aquest es mescla amb el blau de la mar, com es pot veure en algunes de les fotografies de baix. Durant l’època imperial sardena el mot apareix com a eralmas, més rarament escrit oralmas, i és aplicat a d’altres elements naturals més enllà del cel matinenc; així, per exemple, el geògraf Otiŀles el Jove l’usà per a definir el color i aspecte de “les muntanyes de glaç que suren en les mars boreals”. D’aquesta darrera forma, eralmas, s’esdevingué l’heŀlesà eralme.

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En la natura podem veure aquest color en els cels clars del matí, especialment quan es mescla amb el blau intens de la mar, així com en les aigües marines clares a tocar de platges de sorra blanca i en el glaç blavenc dels icebergs.

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Gable


El gable és un color complicat de definir des d’un punt de vista històric, ja que apareix en diverses fonts però en contextos o amb explicacions que donen a entendre diferents definicions. És acceptat que gable prové, per metàtesi, del perà antic glamas, mot que fa referència a un color que engloba els blaus i els verds intensos (incloent-hi els porpres més blavosos i els turqueses) a més a més de l’argent. Tot i que en l’evolució del perà a l’heŀlesà glamas acabà essent restringit al concepte actual de “blau” (glam en heŀleu), oposat tant a marf “verd” com a arlant “argent”, glamas evolucionà paraŀlelament per un altre camí donant lloc a l’heŀlesà gable tot retenint el concepte original perà o gran part del mateix, ja que en textos més tardans, essencialment obres sardenes dedicades a les ciències naturals, trobem els termes intermedis d’aquesta evolució: gablos i gamalos són usats com a noms d’un color que sembla estar íntimament lligat a la idea d’iridiscència, concepte no gens allunyat del de color metàŀlic dels perans.

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Amunt es veuen dues interpretacions del gable. Aquestes tonalitats es poden trobar en les iridiscències presents en l’aigua, en certs insectes i ocells, i en el gas natural quan crema, entre d’altres exemples.

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Blansyard


El blansyard és un negre d’aspecte metàŀlic que pot incloure traces de blau o de porpra en els seus reflexos. El nom és d’origen perà, blantsiardu, el mateix mot que denomina les móres negres. El perquè d’aquesta polisèmia potser té a veure amb el toc lluent de les móres, el color de les quals és un negre profund amb cert toc blavós o morat. Apareix mencionat diversos cops a la Fersèada sempre referit al color dels cabells amb l’única excepció d’una referència al color negre de l’escut de Ferseu («amb el seu escut de blansyard»).
    Aquest color passà a la llengua heŀlesana com una de les tonalitats del negre, i si bé és impossible de reproduir l’acabat metàŀlic o tornassolat d’aquest color la norma és representar-lo amb el codi RGB 9 8 7, una aproximació, però, que no pot mostrar les seves llums blavoses i porprades tan característiques.

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El blansyard rep el seu nom de les móres negres, de color negre lluent amb tons blaus i porpres. Tant antigament com en l’actualitat també és usat popularment per a definir el color dels cabells llisos d’un negre intens i lluent.

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Lhaurès


El lhaurès és un groc metàŀlic, és a dir, el color daurat, el qual sol incloure reflexos de llum rogenca o verdenca. El nom lhaurès és únicament per al color daurat (del perà laladar– “daurat”), diferent del concepte d’or com a metall, en heŀlesà lhaure (or natural) i lhaur (or refinat), ambdós del perà ladaras; totes aquestes formes provenen en darrera instància del sate ra-ra-di “or”. Per als perans el laladaras era un color diferent del bieliu “veli” i del kereli “color de la llimona”, si bé aquest darrer nom aparegué uns segles més tard, durant el moment del perà mitjà.

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El color lhaurès es troba en l’or i en els cabells rossos o castanys amb reflexos daurats, i també en l’oli i el cava.

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Rogall


El color metàŀlic amb una llum entre rogenca i bronzina és el rogall, evolució del rugalias perà, terme derivat de rugas “gran foc, pira, incendi”, que al seu torn prové del sate rug– “foc” (en un sentit animat). Per als perans aquest era un color diferent del buers “sang” (origen de l’heŀlesà guesatz “sagnat” i gualda “vermell”) i del bieliu (en heŀlesà veli “vermell-groc”), ja que definia un color més o menys fosc ―que nosaltres consideraríem marronós― amb reflexos rogencs, diferent, com s’ha dit, del color granat de la sang seca i també del roig flamíger dels pèl-rojos, als quals, en aquest darrer cas, s’hi referien amb bieliu.

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El rogall pot trobar-se en cabells foscos amb reflexos rogencs, en algunes fustes com la caoba, però també en fustes clares si estan envernissades, així com en metalls com el bronze, el coure o el ferro, i en alguns pelatges.

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Els altres colors


La resta de colors metàŀlics no han sobreviscut la llengua perana, si és que els hi hagué. Presumiblement el color de l’argent ja estava representat pel perà glamas (anomenat gable en heŀlesà) mot que agrupava els tons de blau, verd i porpra i el propi argent, però si els perans tenien un concepte de l’argent metàŀlic representat per un nom propi aquest o no ens ha arribat o és senzillament el mateix mot comú usat per al metall, arlantas. Un indici d’això darrer és que els antics textos perans també parlen del bronze com un color usant el nom del metall, ragasaradi o raksaradi; sobta quest ús per dues raons: la primera és que el color del bronze metàŀlic ja estava representat per rugaliu, i l’altra, més estranya, és que l’usaven per a descriure el color del cel. L’explicació més lògica i encertada potser és la de que l’ús de ragasaradi era pensant en el color del bronze vell, de tonalitats entre blavoses i verdoses.

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Main Peran colours.