posts: 235 ,
Alkali Metal, Norman, United States message
Continuing onto verbs.
Verbs in Classical Quazian agree in person/number with the subject (defined as the "nominative", even if such a case only exists in the first and second person of pronouns). Intransitive endings follow:
Note that in the third person, no ending is applied unless the subject is a plural animate. In transitive sentences, you get the following endings instead:
The accent in transitive verbs must shift one to the right. In the first and second person plural it is always placed on the ending as shown.
Classical Quazian distinguishes non-past from past tense and perfective from imperfective aspect (in the past tense only), as well as positive and negative polarity. Additionally, a number of particles and modals can create analytic modal forms.
- The past tense, perfective aspect, is generally formed by transparent-looking suppletion for most verbs, often by switching vowel class, screwing with the accent, consonant mutation, or a combination of these: hṍnõ -> hõná 'eat', mékʷi -> mṍku 'work'. In nearly all past tense verbs, the accent will fall on the personal ending if there is one. A "standardized" option which encompasses a great deal of verbs and remains productive involves merely switching vowel class: níjä "pour" -> nũjá, first person intransitive nũjaná.
- The imperfective past is formed by infixing <eq> or <õq> to the past tense root: hṍnõ -> hõná -> hõqõná 'was eating'.
- Finally, the negative is formed with the prefix wa-/wä-: wahṍnõ 'doesn't eat.'
The citation form for verbs is 3ansg present positive, 1sg past perfective positive: hṍnõ, hõnaná 'eat'.