Anthologica Universe Atlas / Universes / Context 34 / Weyötiss / Morphosyntax


Modern Weyötiss distinguishes roughly six TAMs. The former present has narrowed to a 'conative', which is used to imply attempt or intention:
Φε3PL.NOM τε2SG.ACC παιθο̨ντpersuade.PRES-3PL ϝηε3SG.ACC ηα̨μεμιν!marry-PRES-INF
They're trying to persuade you to marry her!

Ιογ1SG.NOM καθευσο.fall.asleep.PRES-1SG
I'm going to lie down.

The general present is formed using a paraphrasis of the irregular verb τιθμιν (from τιθέμεν, originally meaning to set or do) and the verbal noun.

Ϝηε3SG.NOM ηυσαsleep τθιτ.do.3SG
He's sleeping.

However, this formation is mostly only used in independent clauses. The bare present is used in most dependent clauses (when it is not replaced by the predicate clause):

Τικif  υτthis-N τυ2SG.NOM αμμενισς,please.PRES-2SG ιογ1SG.NOM τονM-ACC.SG ηαμςτοmarriage=2SG τ'2SG.ACC α̨τrequest τθαιινdo.OPT-1SG επon εμε.1SG.ACC
If it pleases you, I would ask for your hand in marriage. (lit: I would ask for your marriage to me.)

It is also used for some impersonal verbs:

It's raining.

And for imperatives:

ΘεοςGod, σα̨νισςlend.IMP-2SG τιανyour-F-ACC.SG ϝιψυstrength μο̨1SG.DAT τθοas ιογ1SG.NOM τοM-ACC.PL σαͱςμοenemy=1SG τθερο.destroy.PRES-1SG
God, lend me your strength as I destroy my enemies.

The future is used to refer to any future events (and may overlap with the present):

ΤοN-NOM.SG ηα̨μblood τοN-ACC.SG κινονthat αμαρday ρευσι.flow-FUT-3SG
Blood will flow on that day.

The aorist has become a gnomic aspect:

ΟM-NOM.SG ορανςheaven ταN-ACC.PL ανα̨ριθμονun-numbered-N ϝερρονthing εͱενgive-AOR-3SG ανθροποτροφον.man-nurturing-N
Heaven brings forth innumerable things to nurture man.

The aorist of τιθμιν can be used periphrastically to denote a perfective sense:

Συννομαμο̨,pardon-1SG.DAT ταF-PL.ACC παναναbanana υποποτnot.yet ινσηολαin-shipping εθονdo.AOR-3PL φε.3PL.NOM
I'm sorry, the bananas haven't been shipped in yet.

The perfect, by contrast, has become a general preterite:

ΤοN-NOM.SG σενρονtree μο̨1SG.DAT εϝεϝολ,threaten.PERF-3SG ιογ1SG.NOM ηαιthen πφλοͱset-on-fire.PERF-1SG ϝηε.3SG.ACC
The tree threatened me, so I set it on fire.