Hellesan phonology
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Phonology



CONSONANTS


/m n ɲ/
/p t k b d g kʷ gʷ/
/r ɾ ɫ ʎ/
/f v s z ɕ ʑ h/
/t͡s d͡z t͡ɕ d͡ʑ/
/j w/

Nasals


/m/ m in all dialects. Allophones: [ɱ] before /f/ and /v/.
/n/ n in all dialects, and nh in Armassac too. Allophones: [ɱ] before /f/ and /v/; [ŋ] before /k/ and /g/.
/ɲ/ ny in all dialects; nh in all dialects except Armassac.
/ɱ/ v, only in the Syerese dialect.

Plosives


/p/ p in all dialects.
/t/ t in all dialects.
/k/ c before a, o, u; ch before e, i. Allophones: [ s] before e, i in most of the dialects, but [t͡ɕ] in Caledian, Tavissan and Zarian, but it's [ɕ] between vowels.
/b/ b in all dialects. Allophones: [β] between vowels and, in many dialects, when preceded by /ɾ/; [p] at the end of word.
/d/ d in all dialects. Allophones: [ð] between vowels and, in many dialects, when preceded by /ɾ/; [t] at the end of word.
/g/ g before a, o, u; gh before e, i. Allophones: [ɣ] between vowels; [k] at the end of word. [ʑ] before e, i in many dialects, but [d͡ʑ] in Caledian, Tavissan and Zarian, but [ʑ] between vowels.
/kʷ/ qu in all dialects.
/gʷ/ gu in all dialects.

Liquids


/r/ r at the beginning of word; rr between vowels.
/ɾ/ r between vowels and at the end of word; also, in Syerese, at the beginning of word.
/ɫ/ l in all dialects and, in Armassac, also lh. It's a pure velar in the most part of Hellesan's domain, loosing intensity in Lower Maurencian, Zarian and Tavissan. Is strongly velar and retroflex with apical-prepalatal contact in many towns in Garamança.
/ʎ/ ll in all dialects; lh in all dialects except Armassac.

Fricatives


/f/ f in all dialects.
/v/ v common in many dialects, although some of them have /b/ o /β/ there. Syerese has /ɱ/.
/s/ s at the beginning and end of word; between vowels is ss.
/z/ z in all dialects; between vowels is s.
/ɕ/ sy at the beginning and the middle of word, and ys at the end of word, in all dialects. Allophones: in the Sargonic area [jɕ] at the end of word and preceded by vowel, with a tendency towards depalatalization in some areas.
/ʑ/ j in all dialects. Also intervocalic dh and zh, in all dialects. Allophones: [d͡ʑ] at the end of word in Caledian and Maurencian.
/h/ h in some words, essentially interjections and loanwords, since most h are mute.

Affricates


/t͡s/ ts in all dialects.
/d͡z/ tz in all dialects. Allophones: at the end of word [t͡s] or [z].
/t͡ɕ/ tsy at the beginning and the middle of word, and yts at the end of word; ig at the end of word.
/d͡ʑ/ tj; tg before e, i.

Semiconsonants


[j] i in syllabic coda, between vowels.
[w] u in syllabic coda, between vowels. In certain dialects as an allophone of /ɫ/ before velar or plosive and/or at the end of word.

VOWELS



Tonic system


/a/ a, à in all dialects. Caledian also has ȁ [a:].
/ɛ/ e; è in all dialects, although in Garamancian and Maurencian is closer to [æ]. Caledian also has ȅ [ɛ:].
/e/ e; é in all dialects.
/i/ i; í in all dialects.
/ɔ/ o; ò in all dialects. Caledian has ȍ [ɔ:] too.
/o/ o; ó in all dialects except Maidandese.
/u/ u; ú in all dialects excepte Armassac. In Maidandese, for o; ó.
/ʊ:/ In Caledian, ou.
/y/ u; ú in Armassac.

Atonic system


/a/ a in the Eastern area. Western area, [ə].
/e/ e in the Eastern area. Western area, [ə].
/i/ i in all dialects.
/ɔ/ e and a at the end of word, when marking the feminine, in Malvanese and Sardegan.
/o/ o in the Eastern area and Garamancian. In the Western area, except Garamancian, /u/.
/u/ u in all dialects.
/ʊ:/ In Caledian, ou.
/y/ u In Armassac.