Noun Declension
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Illative, adessive, and allative cases have been developed, the latter three by addition of *h1en or *h2eu to the dative or accusative. The locative is from the old locative, extended by *h1en; the old locative has been preserved only in set expressions like śəmi "at home" and laukái "in the field".

Some nouns, e.g. byərći 'birth', have ablaut: the nominative, accusative, illative, and allative cases have one vowel, in this case , and all other cases have a different vowel, in this case u.

Declensions are categorized and known by their nominative plural.

TODO: dual

First Declension


The first declension, characterized by the nominative plural -āu, comes from the *eh2-stems.

SGDUPL
NOM-āśi-āu
VOC-āśi-āu
ACC-ą̄-āśi-āŋ
GEN-āśu-āyō-ǭu
DAT-ų̄-āmō-āmu
INS-ōi-āmī-āmi
LOC-āyin-āfin-āfin
ILL-āmin-āśin-āŋin
ADE-ūmau-āmōu-ūmbau
ALL-āmau-āśau-āŋau


Second Declension


The second declension, predictably, is the *-os-stems, or -ō declension.
SGDUPL
NOM-u-ō-ō
VOC-i-ō-ō
ACC-ō-əŋ
GEN-uśu-ōyō
DAT-ōi-amō-ų̄
INS-ō-amī-ōis
LOC-aiśin-afin-aifin
ILL-umin-ōśin-uŋin
ADE-ōyau-amōu-umbau
ALL-umau-ōyau-uŋau


Second-declension neuters fall into two categories: the -ā declension, which declines like the masculine -ō declension except nom./acc. sg. -ų, nom./acc. pl. -ā, and the neuter -ō declension, which declines as follows: (note, however, that both neuter declensions are identical in the dual) (the dual is the same as in the second-declension masculine, except nom./voc./acc. -ai; both classes of neuter have -ai- for -a- in the dat., ins., and loc.)
SGDUPL
NOM-u-ōi
VOC-u-ōi
ACC-u-ōi
GEN-ihu-ōyō-ihǭ
DAT-ihai-aimō-ihmu
INS-ihə-aimī-ihmi
LOC-iśin-aifin-ifin
ILL-uśin-ōiśin-ōśin
ADE-ihayau-aimbau-ihumbau
ALL-uhau-ōyau-ōhau


Third Declension


The third declension, characterized by -i, reflects a wide variety of declension patterns, and may show ablaut between the core and oblique cases: e.g. a~'ə, ə~u, a~i. Nouns ending in -t or -ts replace this with -s in the nominative singular; in addition, familial terms etc. show irregularities here due to Szemerenyi's law, and there is uncertainty as to the genitive and instrumental singular.

SGPL
NOM-0/s-i
VOC-0-i
ACC-əŋ
GEN-s/-u/-i
DAT-ai-mu
INS-ə/ē-mi
LOC-in-fin
ILL-umin-uŋin
ADE-ayau-ambau
ALL-umau-uŋau


Included in this declension are nouns in *tḗr.
SGPL
NOM-tēr-ćəri
VOC-ćər-ćəri
ACC-trų-ćərəŋ
GEN-trə-tunǭ
DAT-trai-tunu
INS-trə/ē-tuni
LOC-trin-tufin
ILL-trumin-ćəruŋin
ADE-trayau-ćəmbau
ALL-trumau-ćəruŋau


And nouns in *-teh2ts. (The -tā ending is omitted here; it shortens when followed by a suffix of more than one mora, i.e. a long vowel or two syllables.)
SGPL
NOM-s-ći
VOC-t-ći
ACC-tų-ćəŋ
GEN-ćə-tǭ
DAT-tai-mu
INS-tə/ē-mi
LOC-ćīn-tufin
ILL-tumin-ćuŋin
ADE-tayau-mbau
ALL-tumau-ćuŋau


Fourth Declension


The fourth declension, or -āi declension, is descended from deverbal nouns in *-tis, e.g. byərći 'birth'. Fourth-declension nouns generally have ablaut.

SGPL
NOM-ći-tāi
VOC-ći-tāi
ACC-ćį-ćiŋ
GEN-tais-tayǭ
DAT-tāi-ćimu
INS-ćī-ćimi
LOC-taiśin-ćifin
ILL-ćimin-ćiŋin
ADE-tayau-ćimbau
ALL-ćimau-ćiŋau


Irregular Declensions:


Secondary ō-declension


This declension consists of the words dāmun 'hometown', čunun 'fruit' (backformed from the obsolete root *čə̨rə̨mun, with irregular loss of the intervocalic laryngeal), hāmun 'seed', tāmun 'cooked vegetable', žānnun 'green vegetable', ćānnun 'boundary, cliff, fence, row', and gʷētsun 'edible leaf, raw vegetable' (< *gʷesdos, folded into the declension for semantic reasons). All nouns with long vowels in the direct stem exhibit ablaut with schwa in the oblique. The plural has been regularized on the model of the neuter -ō declension.

SGPL
NOM-mun-mō
VOC-mun-mō
ACC-mun-mō
GEN-ḿəŋ-miho
DAT-ḿə̨rai-mihmu
INS-ḿə̨rə̨-mihmi
LOC-ḿə̨rin-mifin
ILL-munin-mōśin
ADE-ḿə̨rayau-mihumbau
ALL-munau-mōhau