Hikoomayii Story (NOW WITH COMMENTARY!)
Anthologica Universe Atlas / Academia / Department of Creativity / Hikoomayii Story (NOW WITH COMMENTARY!)

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? Whimemsz posts: 27
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1. One time, they say, Mosquito had been banished from his village after causing too much trouble.
Háá mííni spa Wíixšííʔasay hinyam soʔsoxwoyóopoθak-aθ čsááxanóoyóosθak.
hááokay mííniat.that.time spadem:dist wíixšíí-ʔa-`saᴴywail-?-animal (=Mosquito) hinyamreally soʔ-soᴴxIᴴwoᴴ-`yóo-poᴴ-θak=aθoften-make.mischief-3sprox.real.impfv-iter-rep=ss:consq čsáá-xaᴴ-nóó-`yóos-θakexit-caus-mid:an-3sprox.real.pfv-rep

2. Well, he was walking around [in the desert] for a long time.
Háá ho hokíiθhaháačiyóoko.
hááwell hoso.then oᴴkííθ-ha+háačí-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴdur-rdp+walk(sg)-3sprox.real.impfv-prog

3. He just couldn’t find any water, he just couldn’t find anything to drink or anything to eat.
Ya wííšáay woyóok ki pxáánóoθsííkoθak, ya ki pxáámíimómaxpíθak-fin ki pxáákičaxyifmaθak.
yajust wííšáaywater woyóok3sprox kineg pxáá-nóóθ-síí-oᴴkoᴴ-θak;abilv-find-3inan.irreal.impfv-prog-rep; yajust kineg pxáá-míimóma-aᴴx-`f-piᴴ-θak=finabilv-drink-indef-detr-3sprox.irreal.impfv-rep=ss:simult kineg pxáá-kičaᴴ-aᴴx-yiᴴ-`f-maᴴ-piᴴ-θakabilv-eat-indef-tr-detr-by.mouth-3sprox.irreal.impfv-rep

4. Every cactus and every bush and every plant [he found] was just dried up and dead.
Háambóóbašos háamčíičóošáábos háamóofníwos hi ya sáápaxáθóóyóonyó-fin čwáaxamyóonyó.
háám-bóóba-šosevery-cactus-inan.pl háám-číičóošáá-bosevery-bush-inan.pl háám-móofní-wos=hievery-plant-inan.pl=and yajust sáá-paᴴxaᴴ-θóó-yóó-nyó=finstrong-dry-be:inan-3inan.real.impfv-stat=ss:simult čwáák-xaᴴ-mθ-yóó-nyóplant.die-caus-mid:inan-3inan.real.impfv-stat

5. Every riverbed [he came to] was just empty, and there were no animals or birds anywhere.
Háamčíxííbos ya paxákanwáyóónanóyo-θáá ki našíhííyóonyó-θáá ki hikíikahííyóonyó.
háám-hčíxíí-bosevery-river-inan.pl yajust paᴴxaᴴ-kan-waᴴ-yóóna-nóyo=θáádry-river-become:inan-3inan.real.pfv-stat=ds:simult kineg naší-híí-yóó-nyó=θááanimal-exist:an-3obv.real.impfv-stat=ds:simult kineg ikíika-híí-yóó-nyóbird-exist:an-3obv.real.impfv-stat

6. “I may die,” he said; he was scared, he was feeling very sorry for himself.
“ʔočísisahi” kíimθak, mawónóoyóonyó-fin sááʔoθááxaxípóósinóoyóonyóθak.
“ʔoᴴčiᴴ-sisa-hiᴴ”“human.die-1sg.irreal.pfv-dubit kíim-θak;3quot-rep; maᴴwoᴴ-nóó-`yóo-nyó=finscared-mid:an-3sprox.real.impfv-stat=ss:simult sáá-ʔoᴴθááxa-xIᴴpóó-siᴴ-nóó-`yóo-nyó-θakstrong-sudden.sharp.pain-liver-refl-feel-3sprox.real.impfv-stat-rep
? hwhatting posts: 81
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Well, we know that mosquito didn't die and had a progeny of billions...
I don't know much about North American native languages, but that sure has the look of one.
? kodé man of few words
posts: 109
, Deacon, this fucking hole we call LA
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Excellent! It definitely looks like a North American indigenous language, but not of either of the families I'm more familiar with (Penutian and Muskogean). I like the suffixes that simultaneously express subject person and number, (ir)realis, and (im)perfective. The main thing I'm wondering right now is what the difference is between acute accent and superscript 'H' in the URs.
? Matrix Chronicler of the Myriad
posts: 216
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I think.. that superscript H codes for an accent if it follows an accent or superscript H anywhere in the word, unless it is immediately adjacent to syllables with an accent on each side.
? Whimemsz posts: 27
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In the underlying representation, acute marks high tones, unmarked marks low tones, and H marks variable-toned vowels — the tone of variable-toned vowels depends on position with respect to the word boundary and to high toned vowels. Basically, it's normally low in odd-numbered syllables from the beginning of the word or most recent long vowel, or when adjacent to a high tone vowel, and is high otherwise. (But underlying high and variable-toned vowels can still surface as low when preceding consonant clusters or certain affixes that condition low tone — marked with a preceding <`>, as in oᴴkííθ-ha+háačí-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴ > hokíiθhaháačiyóoko.)

And yeah, the aesthetic feel is meant to be fairly Arapahoan.
? Whimemsz posts: 27
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7. Then in the distance he saw a patch of green grass, and trees.
Sa ʔaxačθóóyóó-om hníí-š hom θiθíimakas θíimomóofníwos hi sxíyóonθak.
sathen ʔaᴴxač-θóó-yóó=omdistant-be:inan-3inan.real.impfv=ds:loc hníí=šthere=novel hompcpl θiᴴ+θíim-íí-θóórdp+green-?-be:inan θíim-moᴴ+móofní-wos=higreen-rdp+tree-inan.pl=and sxí-yóóna-θaksee-3inan.real.pfv-rep

8. He ran over, and saw there was a spring with clear, cool water, and green grass, and green bushes, and tall trees, and everything was lush and wonderful. “I’m saved!” he said.
Sa hníí θamayóošyo-yíí, ʔo sohočóonyošáá-θáá hoθšófakanšóóyóonyošáá-θáá θíimakas θíimčíičóošáábos míímóofníwos hi θkííyóonyošáá-θáá θas hanáčimíθóóyóonyošáá-yíí, “fčanóóʔíin!” hoθočóošyo.
sathen hnííthere θaᴴmaᴴk-`yóos-yoᴴ=yíí,run(sg)-3sprox.real.pfv-mtn=ds:seq, ʔofoc sohIᴴk-`č-yóó-nyó-`šáá=θááspring-exist:inan-3inan.real.impfv-stat-sens=ds:simult hoθšó-fap-kan-šóó-yóó-nyó-`šáá=θáácool-clear-running.water-be:inan-3inan.real.impfv-stat-sens=ds:simult θíim-makasgreen-grass θíim-číičóošáá-bosgreen-bush-inan.pl míí-móofní-wos=hibig-tree-inan.pl=and θkíí-yóó-nyó-`šáá=θááexist-3inan.real.impfv-stat-sens=ds:simult θascompletely aᴴnaᴴčiᴴ-IᴴmIᴴ-θóó-yóó-nyó-`šáá=yíí,good-place-be:inan-3inan.real.impfv-stat-sens=ds:seq, “fčán-nóó-íin!”“rescue-mid:an-1sg.real.impfv!” ho-θoᴴč-`yóos-yoᴴsay-antps-3sprox.real.pfv-mtn

9. When he got closer he looked around but even though it was green and lovely there were no animals and no birds, there were no fruits on the trees.
Sa komišyóo-ʔóó sa hčíwosíxifyóo-θáá θíimíínačimθóóyóó-ko fbó ʔo ki našíhííyóošáá-θáá ki hikíikahííyóošáá-θáá pšáwošos haxá-móofníwos ki θwíičóošáá hníí.
sathen koᴴmiᴴyiᴴ-`yóo=ʔóócome-3sprox.real.impfv=ss:seq sathen hčíwo-sí+xi-f-`yóo=θáárevers-rdp+see-detr-3sprox.real.impfv=ds:simult θíimíí-aᴴnaᴴčiᴴ-IᴴmIᴴ-θóó-yóó=kogreen-good-place-be:inan-3inan.real.impfv-sens=ds:subord fbóhowever ʔofoc kineg naší-híí-yóó-`šáá=θááanimal-exist:an-3obv.real.impfv-sens-ds:simult kineg ikíika-híí-yóó-`šáá=θáábird-exist:an-3obv.real.impfv-sens-ds:simult pšáwo-šosfruit-inan.pl haxá=móofní-wosdel=tree-inan.pl kineg θIᴴ-xwíí-`č-yóó-`šááinv-hang-loc.applic:inan-3inan.real.impfv-sens hnííthere

10. There was no garden.
Mawčo ki θkííyóonyóθak.
mawčogarden kineg θkíí-yóó-nyó-θakexist-3inan.real.impfv-stat-rep
? Whimemsz posts: 27
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11. An old man was sitting on a mat by the spring, and he greeted [Mosquito].
Sa-š spáaw káxaθsóʔiw hníí míí-sohok sayihpánóóčííbonbááyóóθak-ʔóó θšópiyóosθak.
sa=šthen=novel spa-`:wdem:dist-obv ká-xaθsoᴴʔ-iwold-man-obv hnííthere míí=sohIᴴkadsv=spring sayihpaᴴn-óóčíí-bon-`b-(x)áá-yóó-θak=ʔóómat-sit-applic-detr-loc.applic:an-3inan.real.impfv-rep=ss:seq θIᴴ-šoᴴpiᴴ-`yóos-θakinv-greet-3sprox.real.pfv-rep

12. “Who are you?” said Mosquito.
Wíixšííʔasay “ʔoyok?” si hoθočóošyo.
WíixšííʔasayMosquito “ʔoyok?”“who?” siʔthus ho-θoᴴč-`yóos-yoᴴsay-antps-3sprox.real.pfv-mtn

13. [The man] said, “This place is my home, my son; I sit here every day and wait for people, to see if any people might come.
Hoθočóonyó si “híí ʔo či hóó ʔiʔííʔaʔí, hinčíišθok, háamsoʔmíxiyáyóó-čí hóóčííʔíinpo-fin hkóófáabíin-aθ pxáásóomtoθčíin ʔiwí saθsóʔoł komíyifihi-ko.
ho-θoᴴč-yóóna-yoᴴsay-antps-3obv.real.pfv-mtn siʔthus “híí“here ʔofoc čidem:prxl hóó pcpl:loc ʔi+ʔííʔaʔí,rdp+live.in.place, n-`čííyo-θoᴴk,1sg.poss-son-hon, háám-soʔ-miᴴxiᴴyaᴴ-yóó=číeach.time-iter-day.pass-3inan.real.impfv=ds:temp óóčíí-íin-poᴴ=finsit-1sg.real.impfv-habit=ss:simult hkóó-fáá-`b-íin=aθperson-wait.for-detr-1sg.real.impfv=ss:consq pxáá-sóomtó-θoᴴč-íinabilv-know-antps-1sg.real.impfv ʔiwícompzr xaθsoᴴʔ-ołperson-an.pl koᴴmiᴴyiᴴ-fi-hiᴴ=kocome-3pprox.irreal.pfv-dubit=ds:subord

14. “There is water here.
“Híí ʔoši wííšáašoyóonyó.
“híí“here ʔo-šifoc-novel wííšáay-šoᴴ-yóó-nyówater-plentiful-3inan.real.impfv-stat

15. “Please drink, please rest, regain your strength.
“Bab mimíimómaθočsikó-fin, bab kpáánisiko-fin, šaθánisišó.
“bab“please mi+míimóma-θoᴴč-si-oᴴkoᴴ=fin,rdp+drink-antps-2sg.irreal.impfv-prog=ss:seq, babplease kpááni-si-oᴴkoᴴ=fin,rest-2sg.irreal.impfv-prog=ss:seq, šaᴴθaᴴ-niᴴ-si-iᴴšoᴴguard-refl-2sg.irreal.impfv-incept

16. “Make yourself at home (lit. Enter the doorway).”
“ʔoxíʔočóyo čóos.”
“ʔoᴴ-xiᴴʔoᴴ-`čoᴴ-yoᴴvenit-motion-2sg.imper-mtn čóos”doorway”

17. Mosquito was overjoyed, and stuck his face into [the spring] and guzzled down the water until his head throbbed with pain.
Ho Wíixšííʔasay hinyam sáánačínóoyóo-ʔóó kasíšóópokasiyóo-ʔóó habóyóówííšáašθáámayifyóo-ʔóó ho hinyam sáámaʔííšóóponóósiyóo.
hoso.then WíixšííʔasayMosquito hinyamvery sáá-aᴴnaᴴčiᴴ-nóó-`yóo=ʔóóstrong-good-feel:an-3sprox.real.impfv=ss:seq kaᴴsIᴴ-šóópo-`ká-siᴴ-`yóo=ʔóósoak-face-rapid.violent.motion:an-body.part.incorp-3sprox.real.impfv=ss:seq aᴴboᴴyóó-wííšáay-θáá-maᴴ-yiᴴ-`f-`yóo=ʔóófast-water-scoop-by.mouth-tr-detr-3sprox.real.impfv=ss:seq hoand.then hinyamvery sáá-maᴴʔíí-šóópo-nóó-siᴴ-`yóostrong-throbbing.pain-head-feel:an-body.part.incorp-3sprox.real.impfv

18. He decided he would stay here for a while. “It’s better than walking all day with no shade,” he said.
Sa, hoθočóos si “boł ki ʔayaθ haháačísinpó-θáá ki wahíisíí,” kíimθak-aθ ʔo híí hokíiθnaxáni-ok kokóšóonyamsaθočóoθak.
sa,then, ho-θoᴴč-`yóossay-antps-3sprox.real.pfv siʔthus “boł“if kineg ʔayaθbefore ha+háačí-sin-poᴴ=θáárdp+walk(sg)-1sg.irreal.impfv-habit=ds:simult kineg wahíís-`č-síí”shade-exist:inan-3inan.irreal.impfv kíim-θak=aθ3quot-rep=ss:consq ʔofoc hííhere oᴴkííθ-naᴴ-xaᴴ-niᴴ=okdur-set-caus-refl=ss:subord koᴴ+koᴴšóon-yaᴴm-sak-θoᴴč-`yóo-θakrdp+think-tel-tr-antps-3sprox.real.impfv-rep
? Whimemsz posts: 27
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19. When night came, the old man lay down on his mat.
Kafápawáyóó-čí koθí kaʔóow wa-kasáyihípan ʔokínááyóónačθak.
kaᴴfaᴴpaᴴ-waᴴ-yóó=čínight-become:inan-3inan.real.impfv=ds:temp koθíwhen(pst) káʔahó-`:wold.man-obv wa=ka-saᴴyiᴴhiᴴpaᴴnsuprs=3obv.poss-mat ʔo-kiᴴn-(x)áá-yóóna-oč-θakvenit-lie.down-loc.applic:an-3inan.real.pfv-complv-rep

20. He didn’t have a lodge or even a tent, he just slept on his mat on the ground; that’s how he’d always lived.
Ki mimočííhííyóonyó-fin ki fθááhííyóonyó-fin, ya ʔo wa-kasáyihípan miθ nočááko kpáánixááyóópo-fin, mos siʔas hmábonyóópo.
kineg mimočíí-híí-yóó-nyó=finlodge-have-3obv.real.impfv-stat=ss:simult kineg fθáá-híí-yóó-nyó=fin,skin-have-3obv.real.impfv-stat=ss:simult, yajust ʔofoc wa=ka-saᴴyiᴴhiᴴpaᴴnsuprs=3obv.poss-mat miθon nočáákoground kpááni-(x)áá-yóó-poᴴ=fin,sleep-loc.applic:an-3inan.real.impfv-habit=ss:simult, mosalways siʔ-asthus-instr hIᴴmaᴴ-bon-yóó-poᴴlive-applic-3inan.real.impfv-habit

21. But Mosquito didn’t even have a mat.
Čiyó ʔo či Wíixšííʔasay čas dráaw sayihpan ki ʔííxííyóonyó.
čiyóon.the.other.hand ʔofoc čidem:prxl WíixšííʔasayMosquito časemph dráawnone saᴴyiᴴhiᴴpaᴴnmat kineg ʔííxíí-yóó-nyópossess-3inan.real.impfv-stat

22. He said, “How come I have no lodge to sleep in, how come this old man sleeps in luxury but I have to sleep on the rocks and the dirt, I have to sleep with the scorpions?”
Yíííb yosi dráaw mimočíí níí ki ʔííxííyóonyó-aθ skóo-hinka póopáánixáásíípo-θáá, yíííb yosi či káʔahóówáá hinyam sáánačipáániyóopo-θáá čiyó miθ kiθówos miθ nočááko hi kpáániʔíinpo-fin, kowxíifwas ʔááxipáániʔíinpo?!” kíim.
yíííbintj yosiwhy dráawnone mimočíílodge níí1sg kineg ʔííxíí-yóó-nyó=aθpossess-3inan.real.impfv-stat=ss:consq skóo=n-kainsv=1sg.poss-3inan póóʔ-kpááni-(x)áá-síí-poᴴ=θáá,habit-sleep-loc.applic:an-3inan.irreal.impfv-habit=ds:simult, yíííbintj yosiwhy čidem:prxl káʔahó-:wááold.man-pej hinyamvery sáá-aᴴnaᴴčiᴴ-kpááni-`yóo-poᴴ=θáástrong-good-sleep-3sprox.real.impfv-habit=ds:simult čiyóon.the.other.hand miθon kiθó-wosrock-inan.pl miθon nočááko=higround=and kpááni-íin-poᴴ=fin,sleep-1sg.real.impfv-habit=ss:simult, kowxííf-iw-asscorpion-obv-instr ʔááxi-kpááni-íin-poᴴ?!”3.thm-sleep-1sg.real.impfv-habit?!” kíim3quot

23. He said to [the old man], “I have nowhere to sleep.
“Kpáanwó níí ki ʔííxííyóonyó” si sóóhoθočóonyó.
kpááni-wó“sleep-nmzr:instr níí1sg kineg ʔííxíí-yóó-nyó”possess-3inan.real.impfv-stat siʔthus sóó-ho-θoᴴč-yóóna-yoᴴtr-say-antps-3obv.real.pfv-mtn

24. “I have no lodge to sleep in, I have no mat to lie on, I have to sleep on the rocks and the dirt with the scorpions.”
Dráaw ʔo mimočíí níí ki ʔííxííyóonyó skóo-hinka póopáánixáásíí-ok; dráaw ʔo sayihpan níí ki ʔííxííyóonyó wa-hinka póokináásíí-ok; miθ kiθówos miθ nočááko hi kowxíifšas ʔááxičiθpáániʔíinpo.”
dráawnone ʔofoc mimočíílodge níí1sg kineg ʔííxíí-yóó-nyópossess-3inan.real.impfv-stat skóo=n-kainsv=1sg.poss-3inan póóʔ-kpááni-(x)áá-síí=aθ;habit-sleep-loc.applic:an-3inan.irreal.impfv=ss:loc; dráawnone ʔofoc saᴴyiᴴhiᴴpaᴴnmat níí1sg kineg ʔííxíí-yóó-nyópossess-3inan.real.impfv-stat wa=n-kasuprs=1sg.poss-3inan póóʔ-kiᴴn-(x)áá-síí=aθ;habit-lie.down-loc.applic:an-3inan.irreal.impfv=ss:loc; miθon kiᴴθoᴴ-wosrock-inan.pl miθon nočááko=higround=and kowxííf-oł-asscorpion-an.pl-instr ʔááxi-čiᴴθIᴴ-kpááni-íin-poᴴ”3.thm-forced.to-sleep-1sg.real.impfv-habit

25. [The old man] said to him, “I am sorry, my son, I have no lodge.
Ho sóoθhoθočóošyo si “hinčíišθok, paš yoł níí ki mimočííhííʔíinóyo.
hoso.then sóó-θIᴴ-ho-θoᴴč-`yóos-yoᴴtr-inv-say-antps-3sprox.real.pfv-mtn siʔthus “n-`čííyo-θoᴴk,1sg.poss-son-hon, pašunfortunate yołsympathetic níí1sg kineg mimočíí-híí-íin-nóyolodge-have-1sg.real.impfv-stat

26. “I am sorry, my son, I have only one mat.
“Hinčíišθok, paš yoł ya wan sayihpan níí ʔííxííyóonyó.
“n-`čííyo-θoᴴk,1sg.poss-son-hon, pašunfortunate yołsympathetic yajust wanone saᴴyiᴴhiᴴpaᴴnmat níí1sg ʔííxíí-yóó-nyópossess-3inan.real.impfv-stat

27. “You will sleep on my mat tonight, and I can sleep on the ground.”
Híinkafápa-či miθ sayihpan kpáánimikó-θáá miθ nočááko kpáániʔíimokó.
íín-kaᴴfaᴴpaᴴ=čí“once-night=ds:temp miθon saᴴyiᴴhiᴴpaᴴnmat kpááni-mi-oᴴkoᴴ=θáásleep-2sg.fut.impfv-prog=ds:simult miθon nočáákoground kpááni-íim-oᴴkoᴴ”sleep-1sg.fut.impfv-prog

28. [Mosquito] thought that was good.
Woyóok košóonsaθočóosθak hanáčiθóóyóó-ko.
woyóok3sprox koᴴšóón-sak-θoᴴč-yóos-θakthink-tr-antps-3sprox.real.pfv-rep aᴴnaᴴčiᴴ-θóó-yóó=kogood-be:inan-3inan.real.impfv=ds:subord
? Whimemsz posts: 27
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29. The next day, when he woke up he was very hungry.
Sa sifáxamwáyóóšo-yíí hóóxííxíičsiyóo-drá hinyam pománóoyóokoθak.
sathen siᴴfaᴴxaᴴ-mθ-waᴴ-yóó-iᴴšoᴴ=yíílift-mid:inan-become:inan-3inan.real.impfv-incept=ds:seq hóóxíí-xííč-siᴴ-`yóo=drácrack.open-eye-body.part.incorp-3sprox.real.impfv-incept=ss:temp hinyamvery poᴴk-maᴴ-nóó-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴ-θakdiscomfort-by.mouth-feel-3sprox.real.impfv-prog-rep

30. He was just desperate for something to eat, he hadn’t eaten in many days, and he remembered that he had not seen any animals or fruits, he had not seen any garden.
Soʔmixyá-čí ki pxáákičámapiko-aθ ya hinyam sáaʔfókičaxyifmayóo-ʔóó, ho košóonsaθóčóo ʔiwí dráaw našíiw dráaw pšáwošos hi sxíwoy-ok, mawčo sxíwoy-ok.
soʔ-miᴴxiᴴyaᴴ=čílots-day.pass=ds:temp kineg pxáá-kičaᴴ-maᴴ-pi-oᴴkoᴴ=aθabilv-eat-by.mouth-3sprox.irreal.pfv-dur=ss:consq yajust hinyamvery sáá-ʔIᴴfoᴴ-kičaᴴ-aᴴx-yiᴴ-`f-maᴴ-`yóo=ʔóó,strong-need.to-eat-indef-tr-detr-by.mouth-3sprox.real.impfv=ss:seq, hoso.then koᴴšóón-sak-θoᴴč-`yóothink-tr-antps-3sprox.real.impfv ʔiwícompzr dráawnone naᴴšiᴴ-`:wanimal-obv dráawnone pšáwo-šos=hifruit-inan.pl=and sxí-woy=ok,see-neg.subord=ss:subord, mawčogarden sxí-woy=oksee-neg.subord=ss:subord

31. He woke [the old man] up and asked him where the food was. [The old man] groaned and tried to stand up, but he couldn’t.
Ho hóóxííxíičnoxyóonšó-ʔóó miθ hóó kičáxin sčóyiyóonyó-yíí hóómóoʔxáyóonyó-ʔóó sčošyayóóna.
hoso.then hóóxíí-xííč-noᴴx-yóóna-iᴴšoᴴ=ʔóócrack.open-eye-mal-3obv.real.pfv-incept=ss:seq onmiθ hóópcpl:loc kičaᴴ-xiᴴn-`čeat-nmzr:pat-exist:inan sčóyi-yóóna-yoᴴ=yííask-3obv.real.pfv-mtn=ds:seq óómóo-ʔxá-yóóna-yoᴴ=ʔóógroan-sound-3obv.real.pfv-mtn=ss:seq ʔIᴴčIᴴ-šyáp-yóónatry-stand.up-3obv.real.pfv

32. He was all stiff from lying on the rocks all night.
Span wa-kiθówos káá kinááyóonkó-aθ θas maʔíihwánóósiyóonyó.
spa-ndem:dist-pl wa=kiθó-wossuprs=rock-inan.pl káá3obv kiᴴn-(x)áá-yóóna-oᴴkoᴴ=aθlie-loc.applic:an-3inan.real.pfv-dur=ss:consq θascompletely maʔíí-hIᴴwaᴴ-nóó-siᴴ-yóó-nyóache-joint-feel-body.part.incorp-3obv.real.impfv-stat

33. He said to [Mosquito], “I can’t stand up just yet.
Sa sóoθhoθočóošyo si “ki šaní ki pxáašyasin.
sathen sóó-θIᴴ-ho-θoᴴč-`yóos-yoᴴtr-inv-say-antps-3sprox.real.pfv-mtn siʔthus “kineg šanínow kineg pxáá-šyáp-sinabilv-stand.up-1sg.irreal.impfv

34. “My joints are real stiff.
“Hinyam čas maʔíihwánóósiʔíin.
“hinyam“very časemph maʔíí-hIᴴwaᴴ-nóó-siᴴ-íinache-joint-feel-body.part.incorp-1sg.real.impfv

35. “I’ll stand up soon and I can show you where the food is.
“Háá ʔo haʔáaʔmi pxáašyápíimyó-ʔóó ʔo hóó kiθkíí kičáxin ʔááxinóoθsóómi.
“háá“well ʔofoc haʔáaʔmisoon pxáá-šyáp-íim-yoᴴ=ʔóóabilv-stand.up-1sg.fut.impfv=ss:seq ʔofoc hóópcpl:loc ki+θkíírdp+exist kičaᴴ-xiᴴneat-nmzr:pat ʔááxi-nóóθ-sóó-mi3.thm-find-ben-2sg.fut.impfv

36. “I’m the only one who knows where it is,” he said.
“ʔo ya níí hóó kiθkíí sóomtóyóonyó” kíimθak.
ʔofoc yajust níí1sg hóópcpl:loc ki+θkíírdp+exist sóomtó-yóó-nyó”know-3inan.real.impfv-stat kíim-θak3quot-rep
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37. Mosquito said that he was too hungry.
Háá, hoθočóošyoθak spa Wíixšííʔasay hinyam sáápománóó-ok.
hááwell ho-θoᴴč-`yóos-yoᴴ-θaksay-antps-3sprox.real.pfv-mtn-rep spadem:dist WíixšííʔasayMosquito hinyamvery sáá-poᴴk-maᴴ-nóó=okstrong-discomfort-by.mouth-feel=ss:subord

38. “Tell me where the food is and I can get it, you can stay here,” he said.
“Hóó kiθkíí ʔááxihosóósisa-om níí šmokičaxinxihoxbíima-θáá, čiyó naxániminóyo” kíim.
“hóópcpl:loc ki+θkíírdp+exist ʔááxi-ho-sóó-sisa=om3.thm-say-ditr-1sg.irreal.pfv=ds:consq níí1sg šmoᴴ-kičaᴴ-xiᴴn-xiᴴhIᴴx-`b-íima=θáá,andat-eat-nmzr:pat-fetch(sg.O)-detr-1sg.fut.pfv=ds:simult, čiyóon.the.other.hand naᴴ-xaᴴ-niᴴ-mi-nóyo”stand-caus-refl-2sg.fut.impfv-stat kíim3quot

39. “No,” the old man told him.
“Baki” spáaw kaʔóow sóoθhoθočóošyo.
“baki”“don’t” spa-`:wdem:dist-obv káʔahó-`:wold.man-obv sóó-θIᴴ-ho-θoᴴč-`yóos-yoᴴtr-inv-say-antps-3sprox.real.pfv-mtn

40. “Only I know where it is, only I can find it.
“Ya níí no θkíípan níí sóomtóyóonyó; ya níí níí pxáánóoθyóó.
“ya“just níí1sg nodem:invis θkíí-paᴴnexist-nmzr níí1sg sóomtó-yóó-nyó;know-3inan.real.impfv-stat; yajust níí1sg níí1sg pxáá-nóóθ-yóóabilv-find-3inan.real.impfv

41. “All the animals are hidden, all the birds are hidden, all the fruits are hidden,” he said.
“Našíił čibóočíyočwóonyó; hikíikáał čibóočíyočwóonyó; pšáwošos čibóočíθóóyóonyó” kíim.
“naší-`ł“animal-an.pl čiᴴbóó-`čí-yoᴴč-wóó-nyó;hidden-all.of-be:an-3pprox.real.impfv-stat; ikíika-`:łbird-an.pl čiᴴbóó-`čí-yoᴴč-wóó-nyó;hidden-all.of-be:an-3pprox.real.impfv-stat; pšáwo-šosfruit-inan.pl čiᴴbóó-`čí-θóó-yóó-nyó”hidden-all.of-be:inan-3inan.real.impfv-stat kíim3quot

42. “You won’t be able to find food that’s good to eat,” he said.
“Síił ki pxáánóoθsíí no hom haʔánačíθóó ʔin kičáxin” kíim.
síił2sg kineg pxáá-nóóθ-sííabilv-find-3inan.irreal.impfv nodem:invis hompcpl aʔ+aᴴnaᴴčiᴴ-θóórdp+good-be:inan ʔinattrib kičaᴴ-xiᴴn”eat-nmzr:pat kíim3quot

43. But [Mosquito] was determined.
Háá ho bááʔa fimííyočóonyóθak.
hááwell hothen bááʔacontr fiᴴmíí-yoᴴč-`yóo-nyó-θakstraight-be:an-3sprox.real.impfv-stat-rep

44. He was just so hungry, he didn’t listen to the old man.
Ya hinyam sáápománóoyóonyó-aθ spáaw kaʔóow ki sóókóoxááyóó.
yajust hinyamvery sáá-poᴴk-maᴴ-nóó-`yóo-nyó=aθstrong-discomfort-by.mouth-feel-3sprox.real.impfv-stat=ss:consq spa-`:wdem:dist-obv káʔahó-`:wold.man-obv kineg sóó-kóók-xáá-yóótr-hear-mental-3sprox.real.impfv

45. He thought he could find food.
ʔiwí pxáákičáxinónóoθ-ok košóonsaθočóoθak.
ʔiwícompzr pxáá-kičaᴴ-xiᴴn-nóóθ-`f=okabilv-eat-nmzr:pat-find-detr=ss:subord koᴴšóón-saᴴk-θoᴴč-`yóo-θakthink-tr-antps-3sprox.real.impfv-rep
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46. Mosquito walked around for a long time, looking for anything to eat.
Sa spa Wíixšííʔasay sčíkičáxinónóoθyóoko-fin hokíiθhaháačiyóoθak.
sathen spadem:dist WíixšííʔasayMosquito ʔI`čIᴴ-kičaᴴ-xiᴴn-noᴴ+nóóθ-`f-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴ=fintry-eat-nmzr:pat-rdp+find-detr-3sprox.real.impfv-prog=ss:simult oᴴkííθ-ha+háačí-`yóo-θakdur-rdp+walk(sg)-3sprox.real.impfv-rep

47. Every time he seemed to see a rabbit, it was just a shadow, every time he seemed to see a spider, it was just a shadow.
Čakáaw háamsixíhayóópo-yíí ʔo bááʔa ya wahíixšóóyóó; hapíiw háamsixíhayóópo-yíí ʔo bááʔa ya wahíixšóóyóó.
čaká-`:wrabbit-obv háám-si+xí-haᴴy-yóó-poᴴ=yííevery.time-rdp+see-appear.like-3obv.real.impfv-iter=ds:seq ʔofoc bááʔacontr yajust waᴴhííx-šóó-yóó;shadow-be:inan-3inan.real.impfv; apí-`:wspider-obv háám-si+xí-haᴴy-yóó-poᴴ=yííevery.time-rdp+see-appear.like-3obv.real.impfv-iter=ds:seq ʔofoc bááʔacontr yajust waᴴhííx-šóó-yóóshadow-be:inan-3inan.real.impfv

48. There were no fish in the streams, there were no fruits on the trees.
Míí-hčíxííbos kasofyinóosayiw ki θkííxááyóonyó; haxá-móofníwos pšáwošos ki θwíičóonyó.
míí=hčíxíí-bosadsv=river-inan.pl kaᴴsIᴴ-`f-yiᴴ-nóó-`saᴴy-iwsoak-detr-tr-mid:an-animal-obv kineg θkíí-(x)áá-yóó-nyó;exist-loc.applic:an-3inan.real.impfv-stat; haxá=móofní-wosdel=tree-inan.pl pšáwo-šosfruit-inan.pl kineg θIᴴ-xwíí-`č-yóó-nyóinv-hang-loc.applic:inan-3inan.real.impfv-stat

49. He kept remembering what that old man had told him, and got angrier and angrier.
Ho ʔiwí ʔo kasa spáaw kaʔóow ʔááxiθíhosóoyóos-ko sokóšóonsaθočóopo-ʔóó ʔóónawóohpíxáayóo.
hoso.then ʔiwícompzr ʔofoc siʔthus ka-sa3inan-instr spa-`:wdem:dist-obv káʔahó-`:wold.man-obv ʔááxi-θIᴴ-ho-sóó-`yóos=ko3.thm-inv-say-ditr-3sprox.real.pfv=ds:subord soʔ-koᴴšóón-sak-θoᴴč-`yóo-poᴴ=ʔóóiter-think-tr-antps-3sprox.real.impfv-iter=ss:seq ʔóóna-wóohpí-(x)áá-`yóoincreasingly-angry-become:an-3sprox.real.impfv

50. “Pah! He should have come with me, that dirty old man! He should have shown me where the food was!” he said.
Pa! čas woyóok ʔočhoθwóóθáásóósisa — no θšóókáxaθsošáá! — hóó kiθkíí kičáxin čas ʔááxičhoθnóoθsóósisa woyóok!” kíim.
paintj časemph woyóok3sprox ʔoᴴ-očhó-θIᴴ-wóóθáá-sóó-sisa,venit-deont-inv-go-ben-1sg.irreal.pfv, nodem:invis θšóó-ká-xaθsoᴴʔ-:wáá!useless-old-man-pej! hóópcpl:loc ki+θkíírdp+exist kičaᴴ-xiᴴneat-nmzr:pat časemph ʔááxi-očhó-θIᴴ-nóóθ-sóó-sisa3.thm-deont-inv-find-ben-1sg.irreal.pfv woyóok!”3sprox!” kíim3quot

51. He thought that old man had tricked him.
Spáaw kaʔóow θnóošxáánoxmayóos-ko košóósaθočóoθak.
spa-`:wdem:dist-obv káʔahó-`:wold.man-obv θIᴴ-nóóy-xáá-noᴴx-maᴴ-`yóos=koinv-bent-mental-mal-by.mouth-3sprox.real.pfv=ds:subord koᴴšóó-sak-θoᴴč-`yóo-θakthink-tr-antps-3sprox.real.impfv-rep
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52. Finally he came to an organ pipe cactus, with many big pitaya fruits on it; there were pitayas hanging off it, very many.
Sa háaʔmi šmokómiyiyóoθak hníí-š bošíik ʔin bóóba, ʔoši bošíik ʔin míišáwomíwos hi; hníí haxá-ka θwixwíičóonyó-fin bošíišoyóonyóθak.
sathen háaʔmiafter šmoᴴ-koᴴmiᴴyiᴴ-`yóo-θakandat-come-3sprox.real.impfv-rep hníí=šthere=novel bošíikpitaya ʔinattrib bóóba,cactus, ʔo-šifoc-novel bošíikpitaya ʔinattrib míí-pšáwo-miᴴ-wos=hi;big-fruit-aug=and; hnííthere haxá=kadel=3inan θIᴴ-wiᴴ+xwíí-`č-yóó-nyó=fininv-rdp+hang-loc.applic:inan-3inan.real.impfv-stat=ss:simult bošíik-šoᴴ-yóó-nyó-θakpitaya-plentiful-3inan.real.impfv-stat-rep

53. He was so excited.
Čas haʔánačínóoyóo.
časemph aᴴʔ+aᴴnaᴴčiᴴ-nóó-`yóordp+good-feel-3sprox.real.impfv

54. “That old man didn’t know what he was talking about!” he said, and he ran over and grabbed a handful of pitayas and stuffed them into his mouth and swallowed them all.
“No káʔahóówáá ya sxáánóoyóo!” kíim-ʔóó hníí θamayóošyo-ʔóó bobóšíiwos habóyóóθááwóófóotóošyo-ʔóó habóyóočíiθwafábonsífóotóonyó-ʔóó kičačíyifmayóos.
“nodem:invis káʔahó-:wááold.man-pej yajust sp-xáá-nóó-`yóo!”bad-mental-mid:an-3sprox.real.impfv!” kíim=ʔóó3quot-ss:seq hnííthere θaᴴmaᴴk-`yóos-yoᴴ=ʔóórun(sg)-3sprox.real.pfv-mtn=ss:seq boᴴ+boᴴšíík-wosrdp+pitaya-inan.pl aᴴboᴴyóó-θááwóó-fóóʔ-yóos-yoᴴ=ʔóóquickly-hold(pl.O)-by.hand-3sprox.real.pfv-mtn=ss:seq aᴴboᴴyóó-pčííθ-waᴴfaᴴ-bon-siᴴ-fóóʔ-yóóna-yoᴴ=ʔóóquickly-pack-mouth-applic-body.part.incorp-by.hand-3inan.real.pfv-mtn=ss:seq kičaᴴ-čI`čiᴴ-yiᴴ-`f-maᴴ-`yóoseat-all.of-tr-detr-by.mouth-3sprox.real.pfv

55. He didn’t even chew them, just swallowed them whole, he was so hungry.
Háá hinyam sáápománóoyóonyó-aθ čas ki sóósoʔθíišmayóó hof ʔo híinkaθáθóóyóó-čí kičačíyifmayóos.
hááwell hinyamvery sáá-poᴴk-maᴴ-nóó-`yóo-nyó=aθstrong-discomfort-by.mouth-feel-3sprox.real.impfv-stat=ss:consq časemph kineg sóó-soʔ-θííł-maᴴ-yóótr-iter-crumble-by.mouth-3inan.real.impfv hofinstead ʔofoc íinkaθá-θóó-yóó=číwhole-be:inan-3inan.real.impfv=ds:temp kičaᴴ-čI`čiᴴ-yiᴴ-`f-maᴴ-`yóoseat-all.of-tr-detr-by.mouth-3sprox.real.pfv

56. [The pitayas] were delicious and sweet, so he grabbed another handful and gulped it down, and kept eating more and more until he was totally full, then he went off and found a tall cottonwood tree and lay down in the shade under the tree to rest.
Čas hinyam sááwóóhaʔówóošóó-yíí ski θááwóófóotóóyo-ʔóó habóyóóθááwóófóotóošyo-ʔóó habóyóočíiθwafábonsífóotóonyó-ʔóó hokíiθóónakičayóópo-ʔóó θas šámanóoyóosoč-ʔóó sa čixíími šmonóoθyóó-ʔóó hníí haxá-čixíí hníí niwó kawáhíis kinááyóóθak-aθ pxáapáániyóoθak.
časemph hinyamvery sáá-wóóha-ʔoᴴwóóy-yóó=yíístrong-sweet-taste-3inan.real.impfv=ds:seq skiagain θááwóó-fóóʔ-yóó-yoᴴ=ʔóóhold(pl.O)-by.hand-3inan.real.pfv-mtn=ss:seq aᴴboᴴyóó-pčííθ-waᴴfaᴴ-bon-siᴴ-fóóʔ-yóóna-yoᴴ=ʔóóquickly-pack-mouth-applic-body.part.incorp-by.hand-3inan.real.pfv-mtn=ss:seq oᴴkííθ-ʔóóna-kičaᴴ-yóó-poᴴ=ʔóódur-increasing-eat-3inan.real.impfv-iter=ss:seq θascompletely ʔIᴴwaᴴmaᴴ-nóó-`yóos-oč=ʔóóbloat-feel-3sprox.real.pfv-complv=ss:seq sathen čixíí-miᴴcottonwood-aug šmoᴴ-nóóθ-yóó=ʔóóandat-find-3inan.real.impfv=ss:seq hnííthere haxá-čixíídel=cottonwood hnííthere niwóat ka-waᴴhííx3inan.poss-shade kiᴴn-(x)áá-yóó-θak=aθlie.down-loc.applic:an-3inan.real.impfv-rep=ss:consq pxáá-kpááni-`yóo-θakabilv-sleep-3sprox.real.impfv-rep
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57. Mosquito didn’t know these fruits weren’t good to eat; that’s why the old man had said to wait for him to show him where the good food was.
Háá Wíixšííʔasay ki košóonθočóoθak ʔiwí bááʔa čon pšáwošos skičaxinθóóyóó-om ʔiwí hočhófáásíí-ko hníí hanáčikičaxin káá ʔááxiθínóoθsóó-ok čas sóoθhoyóos.
hááwell WíixšííʔasayMosquito kineg koᴴšóón-θoᴴč-`yóo-θakknow-antps-3sprox.real.impfv-rep ʔiwícompzr bááʔacontr či-ondem:prxl-pl pšáwo-šosfruit-inan.pl sp-kičaᴴ-xiᴴn-θóó-yóó=ombad-eat-nmzr:pat-be:inan-3inan.real.impfv=ds:consq ʔiwícompzr očhó-fáá-síí=ko,deont-wait.for-3obv.irreal.impfv=ds:subord, hnííthere aᴴnaᴴčiᴴ-kičaᴴ-xiᴴngood-eat-nmzr:pat káá3obv ʔááxi-θIᴴ-nóóθ-sóó=ok3.thm-inv-find-ben=ss:subord časemph sóó-θIᴴ-ho-`yóostr-inv-say-antps-3sprox.real.pfv

58. The fruit had worms in them, they weren’t good to eat.
Čon pšáwošos ši nohóow θkíínoxyóónakóθak-aθ skičaxinθóóyóonyó.
či-ondem:prxl-pl pšáwo-šosfruit-inan.pl šinovel nohó-`:wworm-obv θkíí-noᴴx-yóóna-oᴴkoᴴ-θak=aθexist-mal-3inan.real.pfv-dur-rep=ss:consq sp-kičaᴴ-xiᴴn-θóó-yóó-nyóbad-eat-nmzr:pat-be:inan-3inan.real.impfv-stat

59. A great big worm broke out into Mosquito’s stomach.
Ho-š čas míínohosiw kóóha-wošbó čsáakáxááyóonyó.
ho=šso.then=novel časemph míí-nohó-soʔ-iwbig-worm-aug-obv kóóha=wo-šbóinsv=3sprox.poss-stomach čsáá-`ká-(x)áá-yóóna-yoᴴexit-rapid.violent.motion:an-loc.applic:an-3inan.real.pfv-mtn

60. Soon he felt a great pain where the worm was in his stomach.
Haʔáaʔmi sa kóóha-wošbó hníí spáaw nohóow θkííxááyóó-om hinyam sááʔočíčinóoyóošo.
haʔáaʔmisoon sathen kóóha=wo-šbóinsv=3sprox.poss-stomach hnííthere spa-`:wdem:dist-obv nohó-`:wworm-obv θkíí-(x)áá-yóó=omexist-loc.applic:an-3inan.real.impfv=ds:loc hinyamvery sáá-ʔoᴴčiᴴčiᴴ-nóó-`yóo-iᴴšoᴴstrong-pain-feel-3sprox.real.impfv-incept

61. When he woke up, it started writhing around and biting and gnawing on him.
Sa hóóxííxíičsiyóošyo-yíí ʔáásasáfayóóšo-fin sóósoʔáaθšóšóónaxímayóoko.
sathen hóóxíí-xííč-siᴴ-`yóos-yoᴴ=yíícrack.open-eye-body.part.incorp-3sprox.real.pfv-mtn=ds:seq ʔáá-saᴴ+saᴴfaᴴ-yóó-iᴴšoᴴ=fintwisting-rdp+wriggle-3obv.real.impfv-incept=ss:simult sóó-soʔ-ʔáá-θIᴴ-šoᴴ+šóónaxí-maᴴ-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴtr-iter-twisting-inv-rdp+hit-by.mouth-3sprox.real.impfv-prog

62. He was in great pain, he couldn’t stand it.
Sááʔoʔóčičínóoyóokoθak-fin, ki pxáákokómiyíxáásaθočpiθak.
sáá-ʔoᴴ+ʔoᴴčiᴴčiᴴ-nóó-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴ-θak=fin,strong-rdp+pain-feel-3sprox.real.impfv-prog-rep=ss:simult, kineg pxáá-koᴴ+koᴴmiᴴyiᴴ-xáá-saᴴk-θoᴴč-pi-θakabilv-rdp+come-mental-tr-antps-3sprox.irreal.impfv-rep
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63. He ran back to the spring and found the old man, who was sitting on his mat again.
Habóyóošmowóóθáayóos-ʔóó hníí sohok, spáaw kaʔóow šmonóoθyóóna-θáá, ski ʔo sayihpanóóčííbonyóokoθak.
aᴴboᴴyóó-šmoᴴ-wóóθáá-`yóos=ʔóó quickly-andat-go-3sprox.real.pfv=ss:seq hnííthere sohIᴴk,spring, spa-`:wdem:dist-obv káʔahó-`:wold.man-obv šmoᴴ-nóóθ-yóóna=θáá,andat-find-3obv.real.pfv=ds:simult, skiagain ʔofoc sayihpaᴴn-óóčíí-bon-`f-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴ-θakmat-sit-applic-detr-3sprox.real.impfv-prog-rep

64. He said to [the old man], “My stomach hurts, my stomach hurts!”
Sóóhoθočóonyó si “Čas sááʔočíčišbónóosíin, čas sááʔočíčišbónóosíin!”
sóó-ho-θoᴴč-yóóna-yoᴴtr-say-antps-3obv.real.pfv-mtn siʔthus “časemph sáá-ʔoᴴčiᴴčiᴴ-šbó-nóó-si-íin,strong-pain-stomach-feel-body.part.incorp-1sg.real.impfv, časemph sáá-ʔoᴴčiᴴčiᴴ-šbó-nóó-si-íin!”strong-pain-stomach-feel-body.part.incorp-1sg.real.impfv!”

65. [The old man] lectured him, saying, “This is why I told you to wait for me.
θyáašyíθočóos si “Siʔas ʔááxihosóóʔíišyo ʔiwí hočhófááʔíisa-ko.
θIᴴ-yáaš⁺´-yiᴴ-θoᴴč-`yóosinv-yell-tr-antps-3sprox.real.pfv siʔthus “siʔ-as“thus-instr ʔááxi-ho-sóó-íis-yoᴴ3.thm-say-ditr-2sg.real.pfv-mtn ʔiwícompzr očhó-fáá-íisa=kodeont-wait.for-1sg.irreal.impfv=ds:subord

66. “You should have waited for me to come with you, you should have listened to me,” he said.
“Hočhówóóθáásóósi-ko síił hočhófááʔíisa; sóočhókóoxááʔíisa,” kíim.
“očhó-wóóθáá-sóó-si=kodeont-go-ben-2sg.irreal.impfv=ds:subord síił2sg očhó-fáá-íisa;deont-wait.for-1sg.irreal.impfv; sóó-očhó-kóók-xáá-íisa”tr-deont-hear-mental-1sg.irreal.impfv kíim3quot

67. The old man knew a lot of medicine, so he knew how to fix [Mosquito] up.
Ho mííyóómotá spáaw kaʔóow sóomtóyóó-aθ ʔiwí woyóok sóoθxómíí-ok pxááboyóonyó.
hoso.then míí-yóómotálarge-medicine spa-`:wdem:dist-obv káʔahó-`:wold.man-obv sóomtó-yóó=aθknow-3inan.real.impfv=ss:consq ʔiwícompzr woyóok3sprox sóó-θIᴴ-xoᴴmíí=oktr-inv-heal=ss:subord pxáá-boᴴ-yóó-nyóabilv-do.so-3obv.real.impfv-stat

68. All that day he cooked up a medicine for him, while [Mosquito] lay on the mat in pain because of the worm in him.
Mixíyačočiyóo-čí θyóómotáwanásóoyóoko-θáá spa wa-sayihpan kinááyóóko-fin ʔočíčinóoyóoko, háaʔmi spáaw nohóow kóóha-woyóok θkííxáayóoko-om.
miᴴxiᴴyaᴴ-čI`čiᴴ-yóo=číday.pass-all.of-3inan.real.impfv=ds:temp θIᴴ-yóómotá-waᴴnaᴴ-sóó-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴ=θááinv-medicine-produce-ben-3sprox.real.impfv-prog=ds:simult spadem:dist wa=saᴴyiᴴhiᴴpaᴴnsuprs=mat kiᴴn-(x)áá-yóó-oᴴkoᴴ=finlie.down-loc.applic:an-3inan.real.impfv-prog=ss:simult ʔoᴴčiᴴčiᴴ-nóó-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴ,pain-feel-3sprox.real.impfv-prog, háaʔmisince spa-`:wdem:dist-obv nohó-`:wworm-obv kóóha=woyóokinsv=3sprox θkíí-(x)áá-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴ=omexist-loc.applic:an-3sprox.real.impfv-prog=ds:consq

69. That night the medicine was finally ready, and [the old man] gave to him that which would fix him up and remove the worm, and he drank it and went right to sleep.
Kafápayóóna-čí spa yóómotá skíimyóónačθak-yíí hom sosómííyi ʔááxiθíʔííxíifxasóoyóošyo-om nohóow woyóok čsááxayamsíína; sa šmomíimómayóonθak-ʔóó šmopáániyóoθak.
kaᴴfaᴴpaᴴ-yóóna=čínight-3inan.real.pfv=ds:temp spadem:dist yóómotámedicine skíí-mθ-yóóna-oč-θak=yíícomplete-mid:inan-3inan.real.pfv-complv-rep=ds:seq hompcpl soᴴ+soᴴmíí-yiᴴrdp+heal-tr ʔááxi-θIᴴ-ʔííxíí-`f-xaᴴ-sóó-`yóos-yoᴴ=om3.thm-inv-possess-detr-caus-ben-3sprox.real.pfv-mtn=ds:consq nohó-`:wworm-obv woyóok3sprox čsáá-xaᴴ-yaᴴm-síína;exit-caus-tel-3obv.irreal.pfv; sathen šmoᴴ-míimóma-yóóna-θak=ʔóóandat-drink-3inan.real.pfv-rep=ss:seq šmoᴴ-kpááni-`yóo-θakandat-sleep-3sprox.real.impfv-rep
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70. In the morning, he felt much better.
Sa sifáxamwáyóóna-čí ʔóónanáčinóoyóoθak.
sathen siᴴfaᴴxaᴴ-mθ-waᴴ-yóóna=čílift-mid:inan-become:inan-3inan.real.pfv=ds:temp ʔóóna-aᴴnaᴴčiᴴ-nóó-`yóo-θakincreasing-good-feel-3sprox.real.impfv-rep

71. The medicine had worked and the worm was gone.
Spa yóómotá siʔóyamyóosoč-om spáaw nohóow ki θkííyóó.
spadem:dist yóómotámedicine xiᴴʔoᴴ-yaᴴm-mθ-`yóos-oč=omdo-tel-mid:inan-3sprox.real.pfv-complv=ds:consq spa-`:wdem:dist-obv nohó-`:wworm-obv kineg θkíí-yóóexist-3obv.real.impfv

72. But when he looked around, the grass was all gone, the trees were gone, the spring was gone.
Sa hčíwosíxifyóo-θáá, ki θas θkííyóonyošáá-θáá bááʔa makas, ki θas θkííyóonyošáá-θáá bááʔa móofníwos, bááʔa sohok ki θas θkííyóonyošáá.
sathen hčíwo-sí+xi-`f-`yóo=θáá,revers-rdp+see-detr-3sprox.real.impfv=ds:simult, kineg θascompletely θkíí-yóó-nyó-`šáá=θááexist-3inan.real.impfv-stat-sens=ds:simult bááʔacontr makaᴴs,grass, kineg θascompletely θkíí-yóó-nyó-`šáá=θááexist-3inan.real.impfv-stat-sens=ds:simult bááʔacontr móofní-wos,tree-inan.pl, bááʔacontr sohIᴴkspring kineg θascompletely θkíí-yóó-nyó-`šááexist-3inan.real.impfv-stat-sens

73. All of the green wasn’t there.
Hom θiθíimííθóó ki θas θkííyóonyó.
hompcpl θi+θíimíí-θóórdp+green-be:inan kineg θascompletely θkíí-yóó-nyóexist-3inan.real.impfv-stat

74. The old man too wasn’t there.
Híí bááʔa nóow kaʔóow čas ki θkííyóó.
hííalso bááʔacontr no-`:wdem:invis-obv káʔahó-`:wold.man-obv časemph kineg θkíí-yóóexist-3inan.real.impfv

75. He was just on the rocks and the dirt and all around was just dirt and rocks and dried-up cacti and dried-up shrubs; so Mosquito got up and went on his way again.
Ya wa-kiθówos wa-nočááko hi naxááyóóko-θáá ya nočáákošos kiθówos hom papaxθóó ʔin bóóbašos hom papaxθóó ʔin číičóošáábos hi skinayóonyó-yíí ho spa Wíixšííʔasay šyayóošyo-ʔóó ski šmowówóóθáayóošo.
yajust wa=kiθówossuprs=rock-inan.pl wa=nočááko=hisuprs=ground=and na-(x)áá-yóó-oᴴkoᴴ=θáástand-loc.applic:an-3inan.real.impfv-prog=ds:simult yajust nočááko-šosground-inan.pl kiθówosrock-inan.pl hompcpl paᴴ+paᴴxaᴴ-θóórdp+dry-be:inan ʔinattrib bóóba-šoscactus-inan.pl hompcpl paᴴ+paᴴxaᴴ-θóórdp+dry-be:inan ʔinattrib číičóošáá-bos=hibush-inan.pl=and skík-na-yóó-nyó=yííextend-stand-3inan.real.impfv-stat=ds:consq hothen spadem:dist WíixšííʔasayMosquito šyáp-`yóos-yoᴴ=ʔóóstand.up-3sprox.real.pfv-mtn=ss:seq skiagain šmoᴴ-woᴴ-wóóθáá-`yóo-iᴴšoᴴandat-rdp+go-3sprox.real.impfv-incept

76. He never did find that old man again.
Čas ki ski ki nóoθyóonθak nóow kaʔóow.
časemph kineg skiagain kineg nóóθ-yóóna-θakfind-3obv.real.pfv-rep no-`:wdem:invis-obv káʔahó-`:wold.man-obv


77. That’s the story, they say.
ʔo či yóófíiθóóyóonyóθak.
ʔofoc čidem:prxl yóófííθ-θóó-yóó-nyó-θakstory-be:inan-3inan.real.impfv-stat-rep


~~~ FIN ~~~
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Background


Hikóómayíi is a highly endangered language, spoken with full fluency by a few dozen people (all over the age of 50), plus several hundred individuals (including some adolescents) with passable competency or who are able to understand but not speak it. The form spoken by younger individuals shows a number of simplifications and features heavily influenced by the dominant language of the region, Réĝledh, and such speakers tend to code-switch between Hikóómayíi and Réĝledh (which is understood by all members of the community). This story was told by an elderly fluent native speaker, and is representative of "traditional" Hikóómayíi.

Hikóómayíi speakers live in a desert, similar ecologically to the Chihuahuan Desert of North America.

Hikóómayíi is part of the larger Gonyii family, and specifically of the Moose branch. It is phonologically highly divergent from other Moose languages, although grammatically it seems to be more conservative and less innovative than most of its sisters. Phonological changes that have served to make Hikóómayíi highly distinct include:
  • *k → ʔ, followed by *l, *t → k
    e.g. *kooli "dog" > ʔááki (cf. cognates: kol, goola, kolɨ, koohe, chuli, kuuri, koyi)
  • *p → x (→ s in most contexts)
    e.g. *pohthii "vulture" > sačíí (cf. cognates: pse, vošii, pɨshi, poosii, boshi, həətthii, peesi)
  • *ts → h /__i(ː), e(ː)
    e.g. *tsilaa "person" > hkóó (cf. cognates tsla, šalaa, chɨla, tsiraa, silo, ṭṣaa, činõ)
  • *w → m /__i(ː)
    e.g. *weeyo "fish hook" > mííya (cf. cognates: wey, geeyo, wiyɨ, eeʔo, wisho, wiə)
  • *w → b in a number of environments
    e.g. *aawa "two" > hóobo (cf. cognates: aw, aawa, awə, aaʔa, owa, aava, hõwa)
  • *q → w
    e.g. *√qaatsoo "go" > |wóóθáá| (cf. cognates: |qatso|, |kacho|, |ʔaatsoo|, |g(os)u|, |kõnčo|)
  • *a(ː) and *o(ː) appear to "switch" in most environments (cf. most examples above)
  • *kk → w~y (depending on environment, and sometimes further → b)
    e.g. *ⁿdaakke "ash tree" > bóóyi (cf. cognates: nnakʸ, naaše, dahkə, raakke, noche, ḍaakkə, gõnča)
    *nahthekko "sage" > nočíwa (cf. cognates: sekʸ, našeko, nasekko, nashecho, naasahkə)
    *hiikk "harrier" > híib (cf. cognates: ekʸ, hihk, hiik, yich, çíìk, hihk)

Phonology



Phoneme Inventory


Unimportant!

Tone


There are two tonemes: high (marked with acute accents: <á>, <áá>) and low/falling, realized as low on short vowels, and falling on long vowels (low tone is unmarked: <a>; while falling is marked with acute+unmarked: <áa>). Hikóómayíi is the only tonal Moose language, and high and falling tones historically derive from stressed vowels. Pre-Hikóómayíi had an iambic stress pattern, with every long vowel stressed as well as every other short vowel counting rightwards from the beginning of the word or the most recent long vowel. At some point after stress was converted to tone, a rule (still productive in modern Hikóómayíi) arose that lowered the tone of any vowel in a closed syllable. Later simplification of many clusters rendered the system somewhat opaque.

In the synchronic underlying representation, three tone categories can be recognized: (a) high tone vowels, (b) low tone vowels, and (c) variable-tone vowels (marked with superscript "H"). High tone vowels surface with high tone unless blocked by a following cluster, word final consonant, or morpheme that always conditions preceding low tone (which are marked with leading <`>). Low tone vowels always surface with low tone. Variable-tone vowels surface as high tone if they are an even number of syllables from the beginning of the word, the most recent long vowel, or the most recent (underlying) high tone vowel (again, unless blocked by a cluster or `-morpheme).

Phonological Processes


There are several important phonological processes illustrated in the story. One of the most pervasive is penultimate vowel deletion (PVD). PVD deletes penultimate (surface) low tone short vowels. It is blocked (a) when the antepenult is also low tone, (b) when the penult precedes a surface or historical consonant cluster, (c) when the penult is part of one of the aspectual suffixes, and (d) irregularly before certain morphemes, such as the inanimate plural noun suffix.

PVD is illustrated in a number of words in the story, but one recurring example involves the word for "old man." Underlyingly this is //káʔahóow// (including the obviative suffix -`:w). However, the low tone penultimate vowel -a- is deleted by PVD, so this word surfaces throughout the story as kaʔóow (with lowering of the tone of the -á- when preceding a cluster, followed by simplification of the resulting -ʔh- cluster). The underlying penultimate vowel resurfaces when other suffixes are applied that render -a- no longer in the penult: //káʔahó-:wáá// (old.man-pej) = káʔahóówáá (line 54).

Another example, illustrating both the tone rules and PVD, is the term for "mat," which is underlying //saᴴyiᴴhiᴴpaᴴn//. By the tone rules this becomes intermediate //sayíhipán// > //sayíhipan//. By PVD, this then becomes //sayíhpan//, followed by lowering of the tone in the closed syllable, resulting in surface sayihpan (e.g. line 21). Adding a prefix to the stem for "mat" results in a different surface tone arrangement (and blocked PVD due to a high tone penult): //ka-saᴴyiᴴhiᴴpaᴴn// > kasáyihípan "OBV's mat" (line 19).

Other important processes include rules of cluster simplification/modification (for example, ʔ-y over a morpheme boundary surfaces as t, as in //θááwóó-fóóʔ-yóó-yoᴴ// > θááwóófóotóóyo "he grabbed them" (line 56)); resolution of vowel hiatuses through either glottal stop epenthesis or deletion of the second vowel; and the treatment of the morphophoneme // I //, which is deleted in metrically weak position as in (1) below, and in metrically strong position surfaces as i in open syllables ((2) below) and as o in (underlying or surface) closed syllables ((3) below).

(1) //sóó-θIᴴ-ho-θoᴴč-`yóos-yoᴴ// > sóoθhoθočóošyo
"(the other one) said to him"
(e.g. line 25)

(2) //ʔááxi-θIᴴ-ho-sóó-`yóos// > ʔááxiθíhosóoyóos
"(the other one) said it to him"
(line 49)

(3) //sohIᴴk// > sohok
"spring"
(passim)


Grammatical Overview



Animacy


Hikóómayíi nouns are either animate or inanimate. Animate nouns include all humans, animals, and spiritual beings. Inanimate nouns include plants and most non-living objects and abstract concepts. However, there are a handful of notionally inanimate nouns that are treated as grammatically animate, including -fIᴴhaᴴmi- "face," háaská "fire," -hkíí- "penis," koxákíič "arrowhead," -miᴴxiᴴ- "tongue," nop "alcohol," nóósíípan "mescal," spóóhi "seed," šáapó "edible leafy plant," θinišxá "pus," -θoᴴʔííł- "claw," -θoᴴšoᴴ- "finger," and θóóhíí "prickly pear." It's not always clear why these nouns are classified as animate, although some trends are apparent. Many of these unexpected animates can be classified as items with "spiritual power" (alcoholic drinks, fire, arrowheads [which take away life]), items related to generating life (seed, penis), and body parts that either have a clear connection with a person's soul/emotions (face) or are small and highly mobile and have a certain degree of 'agency' (tongue, finger, claw, penis again).

Animacy is instantiated in a number of areas in the grammar. Singular nouns are not overtly marked for animacy, but animate and inanimate nouns have distinct plural suffixes. There are distinct pronouns for animate and inanimate third person (woyóok third singular animate (proximate), ka third singular inanimate, θóó third plural animate (proximate), and θoʔob third plural inanimate). Verbal person cross-referencing also distinguishes (proximate) animate and inanimate third persons (with inanimate merged with obviative third person). Only animate nouns are sensitive to obviative assignment (see below). Inverse marking is determined by a prominence hierarchy in which animate nouns outrank inanimates (see below). Finally, many derivational verb suffixes can only occur with animate or inanimate referents. For example, -θóó ("be quality, be description, be [noun]") forms intransitive verbs with inanimate subjects; -yoᴴč (same meaning) forms intransitive verbs with animate subjects:

(4) |ʔaᴴkiᴴ|-θóó > -ʔakíθóó-
old-be:inan
"(it) is old"

(5) |ʔaᴴkiᴴ|-yoᴴč > -ʔakíyoč-
old-be:an
"(s/he) is old"

Obviation


Animate third persons are also marked as either proximate or obviative. In a given section of discourse, there can only be one proximate animate NP; all other animate NPs are obviative. The proximate NP is generally the most topical participant in the discourse, though there are some specific rules of obviation assignment — for example, in a sentence with a human and an animal participant, the human is always given proximate status; while one animate third person referent possessed by another must be obviative (the possessor can be proximate or obviative, depending on the prior discourse situation). Obviation assignment can be switched (with "proximate" status assigned to a different NP) by restating the newly-proximate NP without obviative marking, though this is not as frequent in Hikóómayíi as in most natlangs which have obviation. There are no obviation switches in this story, in which Mosquito remains proximate throughout, while the old man, as well as any other occasional animate nouns (e.g. "scorpion" in line 22) are marked as obviative.

Obviation, along with switch reference (see below) can be a useful method of clarifying participant reference without using overt pronouns or NPs. Overt NPs and third person pronouns are rare in this story — there are 8 animate third person pronouns (6 proximate, 2 obviative), 8 instances of Mosquito's name, and 10 overt references to the old man (excluding within reports of Mosquito's speech). Most participant reference is instead accomplished through verbal inflections, switch reference marking, and obviation assignment. (By contrast, in the English translation, there are 82 animate third person subject or object pronouns [outside direct speech reports], 15 instances of Mosquito's name, and 19 overt references to the old man.)

Obviation is marked on nouns with the suffix -iw/-`:w. Personal pronouns also distinguish proximate (3sprox woyóok, 3pprox θóó) from obviative (káá). Demonstratives also agree in obviation with the NP they modify (e.g. spa Wíixšííʔasay "(that) Mosquito", line 1; vs spáaw kaʔóow "that (obv) old man (obv)," line 39). Obviatives are marked the same as inanimates in verbal inflection, in opposition to proximate animates.

Number


Nouns are obligatorily marked for singular versus plural number. Singular nouns are unmarked () while plural proximate animates suffix -oł/-`:ł and plural inanimates suffix -wos/-šos/-bos. Obviatives are unmarked for number, and the obviative suffix takes the place of the proximate plural suffix. Pronouns and verb inflection also distinguish singular and plural number for most persons (including separate pronouns for 1pl inclusive and 1pl exclusive, though clusivity is not distinguished in verbal inflection). Demonstratives agree in number with the NP they modify (as in span wa-kiθówos "on those rocks", line 32).

A few verbs are lexically specified for the number of their absolutive participant, and expressing the same notion for the opposite number requires use of a different, unrelated verb root. These are primarily verbs involving purposeful motion or handling/manipulating an object. There are 4 examples in the story:
  • |háačí| "walk (sg subject)" (lines 2, 18, 46)
    (cf. |šIᴴmIᴴk|, "walk (pl subject)")
  • |θaᴴmaᴴk| "run (sg subject)" (lines 8, 54)
    (cf. |ʔaᴴθaᴴ|, "run (pl subject)")
  • |xiᴴhIᴴx| "fetch (sg object)" (line 38)
    (cf. |naᴴxáá| "fetch (pl object)")
  • |θááwóó| "hold (pl object)" (lines 54, 56)
    (cf. |yaᴴyááxon| "hold (sg object)")
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Transitivity


All verb roots in Hikóómayíi are inherently either transitive or intransitive (none are inherently ditransitive). Obviously, intransitive roots have one associated participant (S), while transitive roots have two (A and P). Many intransitive roots can be directly inflected for the person of S, without further modification:

(6) |kpááni|intr-si-oᴴkoᴴ > kpáánisiko
rest-2sg.irreal.impfv-prog
"may you rest" (line 15)

Likewise, most transitive roots can be directly inflected for the person of P (the absolutive) without further modification:

(7) |sxí|tr-yóóna-θak > sxíyóonθak
see-3inan.real.pfv-rep
"(he) saw that, it's said" (line 7)

In order to use a [-TR] root transitively, or a [+TR] root intransitively (or either root ditransitively), the root must be overtly derived to create a new stem with the appropriate valence/transitivity level — there are no ambitransitive verbs in Hikóómayíi. There are a range of derivational affixes which can accomplish this; to a large extent which one(s) are used with which root are lexically-determined. The most common include the transitivizing prefix sóó-, the transitivizing suffixes -saᴴk (generally derives verbs with inanimate objects) and -yiᴴ (generally verbs with animate objects), the detransitivizer  -`b/-`f, the antipassive -θoᴴč, reflexive -niᴴ, middles -mθ and -nóó, and causative -xaᴴ, as well as several applicatives (see below).

Some examples from the story:

(8) |fčán|tr + nóómid=tr>intr -íin > fčanóóʔíin
rescue-mid:an-1sg.real.impfv
"I'm saved" (line 8)

(9) |mi+míimóma|tr + θoᴴčantps=tr>intr -si-oᴴkoᴴ > mimíimómaθočsikó
rdp+drink-antps-2sg.irreal.impfv-prog
"may you drink (demoted, unspecified object(s))" (line 15)

(10) sóótr=intr>tr + |kóók|intr -xáá-yóó > sóókóoxááyóó
tr-hear-mental-3obv.real.impfv
"(he didn't) listen to him(obv)" (line 44)

Use of various valence adjusting affixes is obligatory in many contexts, including when incorporating a noun root into the verb (by default such derived verbs contain detr -`b/-`f ((11) below), unless the incorporated root is a body part and the possessor is coreferential with the verb's subject, in which case the suffix is -si ((12) below)); and in forming complement clauses (the matrix verb takes the antipassive suffix -θoᴴč ((13) below), even when the underived matrix verb is intransitive, as in (14)). Because a verb must be overtly detransitivized in order to incorporate a noun, intransitive verbs must first be transitivized before being detransitivized ((15) below). There are however exceptions to this rule, always involving incorporated body parts.

(11) hkóó-|fáá|tr-`b-íin > hkóófáabíin
person-wait.for-detr-1sg.real.impfv
"I wait for people (lit. I people-wait)" (line 13)

(12) |hóóxíí|tr-xííč-siᴴ-`yóo > hóóxííxíičsiyóo
crack.open-eye-body.part.incorp(detr)-3sprox.real.impfv
"he woke up (lit. he eye-opened)" (line 29)

(13) pxáá-|sóomtó|tr-θoᴴč-íin > pxáásóomtoθčíin
abilv-know-antps-1sg.real.impfv
"I am able to know that . . ." (line 13)

(14) |ho|intr-θoᴴč-`yóos-yoᴴ > hoθočóošyo
say-antps-3sprox.real.pfv-mtn
"he said: . . ." (line 8)

(15) aᴴboᴴyóó-wííšáay-|θáá|intr-maᴴ-yiᴴ-`f-`yóo > habóyóówííšáašθáámayifyóo
fast-water-scoop-by.mouth-tr-detr-3sprox.real.impfv
"he guzzled down the water (lit. he quickly water-scooped with his mouth)" (line 17)

Ditransitive verbs have three arguments — A, R, and T — rather than one or two. Hikóómayíi is a secundative language, meaning it treats the R(ecipient) the same as the P of (mono)transitive verbs. These are primary objects and are indexed on the verb through the person/number/TAM suffix. The T(heme) of ditransitives is a secondary object and is marked separately from primary objects. Secondary objects: (a) take the instrumental suffix -as/-sa on the NP, if it is overtly expressed, and (b) are marked on the verb through person/number Theme prefixes (glossed thm in the story). (Several notionally "monotransitive" verbs that involve extreme lack of control by the A participant, or that are related to emotion/experience, take a secondary object rather than a primary object, and the subject is treated as an absolutive, and marked on the verb. There are no examples of this in the story.)

Ditransitive verbs in Hikóómayíi include prototypical verbs involving transfer of items ("give X to Y," "toss X to Y," etc.), as well as many others, including a number with benefactive meaning ("mix X into Y," "pluck X off of Y," "sing X to Y," "slide X off of Y," "guard X for Y," "add X to Y as a spice/seasoning," etc.). The main ditransitivizing suffix is -sóó, but some verbs use the malefactive suffix -noᴴx or instrumental/general applicative -bon instead. An example from the story:

(16) ʔááxi-očhó-θIᴴ-|nóóθ|tr-sóó-sisa > ʔááxičhoθnóoθsóósisa
3.thm-deont-inv-find-ditr(ben)-1sg.irreal.pfv
"(he) should have shown it to me" (line 50)
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Alignment


As alluded to above, Hikóómayíi shows ergative alignment, since verbs inflect for the absolutive participant (S of intransitive clauses, P of transitive clauses, R of ditransitive clauses). The ergative (A of transitive clauses) is not indexed on the verb.

Additionally, verbs mark a direct/inverse distinction. Hikóómayíi has a prominence hierarchy: 1/2 > 3prox > 3obv > inan, in which the persons to the left are considered more naturally topical than those to their right, and are considered more natural to act upon rightward persons. That is, it's more natural for a proximate third person to act on an obviative than vice versa, and more natural for an SAP (speech act participant = 1st or 2nd person) to act on an inanimate object than vice versa. For verbs in which a lower ranking participant acts upon a higher ranking participant, the inverse prefix θIᴴ- is required. The inverse is used:

1. In monotransitive or ditransitive clauses with:
  • An inanimate subject
  • An obviative subject and proximate or SAP primary object
  • A proximate subject and SAP primary object
2. In ditransitive clauses with:
  • An inanimate recipient (=primary object)
  • A proximate or SAP theme (=secondary object) and obviative primary object
  • An SAP secondary object and proximate primary object

Some examples:

(17a) sóó-|ho|-θoᴴč-yóóna-yoᴴ > sóóhoθočóonyó
tr-say-antps-3obv.real.pfv-mtn (prox→obv = direct)
"(he) said to him(obv) . . ." (e.g. line 23)

(17b) sóó-θIᴴ-|ho|-θoᴴč-`yóos-yoᴴ > sóoθhoθočóošyo
tr-inv-say-antps-3sprox.real.pfv-mtn (obv→prox = inverse)
"(he(obv)) said to him(prox) . . ." (e.g. line 25)

(18a) |ʔííxíí|-yóó-nyó > ʔííxííyóonyó
possess-3inan.real.impfv-stat (SAP→inan = direct)
"(I) have it" (line 26)

(18b) ʔoᴴ-očhó-θIᴴ-|wóóθáá|-sóó-sisa > ʔočhoθwóóθáásóósisa
venit-deont-inv-go-ben-1sg.irreal.pfv (prox→SAP = inverse)
"(he) should have come with me" (line 50)

Note that any transitive verb with an inanimate subject is marked as inverse, even if it also has an intransitive object, as in (19). Inanimate participants are not ranked for prominence with respect to one another ((19) could theoretically also mean "(the trees were not) hanging from (fruits)"), so the inverse in such clauses merely marks the verb as a transitive verb with an inanimate subject.

(19) θIᴴ-|xwíí|-`č-yóó > θwíičóó
inv-hang-loc.applic:inan-3inan.real.impfv (inan.subj = inverse)
"(fruits were not) hanging from them (the trees)" (modified from line 9)
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Aspect



Obligatory Aspect Inflection


All fully inflected verbs in Hikóómayíi take a suffix marking person/number/obviativity/animacy of the absolutive (S/P/R), mood/tense (realis, irrealis, or future — see below), and aspect (perfective or imperfective). Perfective (pfv) predicates are prototypically those viewed "externally," with a defined beginning and end, and no focus on internal structure. Imperfective (impfv) predicates are prototypically those viewed "internally," as being in progress or without a clearly defined end point, or with a focus on the event's internal structure. (However, there are a number of complications, some of which are taken up below.)

Further Aspectual Suffixes


The person/TAM suffix can optionally be followed by a further aspectual suffix providing further specification of the verb's aspect. These suffixes are:
  • -nyó/-nóyo, stative (stat), which marks states or gnomic statements. The stative can be used with both perfective and imperfective verbs, but is rare with perfectives. See (20a,b) below.
  • -oᴴkoᴴ, which with imperfective verbs is progressive (prog), marking an action in progress, and with perfective verbs is durative (dur), marking a completed action that extended over a period of time. See (21a,b) below.
  • -oč, which with perfective verbs is completive (complv), indicating a past action carried through to completion, and with imperfective verbs is cessative (cess), which is fairly rare, but focuses on an action as drawing to a close. The cessative does not appear in the story. For the completive see (22) below.
  • -yoᴴ, which only occurs with perfectives, is the momentane (mtn), marking a single action of short duration. See (23) below.
  • -iᴴšoᴴ, which only occurs with imperfectives, is the inceptive (incept), marking an event that is beginning. See (24) below.
  • -poᴴ, which only occurs with imperfectives, can have both iterative (iter) and habitual (habit) connotations, in both cases marking an action or state that occurs repeatedly over a given time frame. See (25a,b) below.

Examples of these aspectual suffixes, from the story:

(20a) wííšáay-šoᴴ-yóó-nyó > wííšáašoyóonyó
water-plentiful-3inan.real.impfv-stat
"there's plenty of water (here)" (stative/gnomic) (line 14)

(20b) |paᴴxaᴴ|-kan-waᴴ-yóóna-nóyo > paxákanwáyóónanóyo
dry-moving.water-become:inan-3inan.real.pfv-stat
"the rivers had become completely dry" (stative perfective) (line 5)

(21a) sayihpaᴴn-|óóčíí|-bon-`f-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴ-θak > sayihpanóóčííbonyóokoθak
mat-sit-applic-detr-3sprox.real.impfv-prog-rep
"he was sitting on his mat, it's said" (progressive) (line 63)

(21b) |kiᴴn|-(x)áá-yóóna-oᴴkoᴴ > kinááyóonkó
lie-loc.applic:an-3inan.real.pfv-dur
"he had lain there [for a long time]" (durative) (line 32)

(22) |skíí|-mθ-yóóna--θak > skíimyóónačθak
complete-mid:inan-3inan.real.pfv-complv-rep
"(the medicine) was finished [being made], it's said" (completive) (line 69)

(23) |šyáp|-`yóos-yoᴴ > šyayóošyo
stand.up-3sprox.real.pfv-mtn
"he stood up" (momentane) (line 75)

(24) ʔáá-|saᴴ+saᴴfaᴴ|-yóó-iᴴšoᴴ > ʔáásasáfayóóšo
twisting-rdp+wriggle-3obv.real.impfv-incept
"it started writhing around" (inceptive) (line 61)

(25a) háám-|si+xí|-haᴴy-yóó-poᴴ > háamsixíhayóópo
every.time-rdp+see-appear.like-3obv.real.impfv-iter
"every time that (he) seemed to see it (a rabbit) . . ." (iterative) (line 47)

(25b) |óóčíí|-íin-poᴴ > hóóčííʔíinpo
sit-1sg.real.impfv-habit
"I sit here (every day)" (habitual) (line 13)

Other Conditions of Aspect Assignment


Certain derivational suffixes, verbal prefixes, and morphosyntactic processes require either perfective or imperfective inflection on the verb, which complicates the imperfective/perfective division as described above.

Derivational suffixes that condition one or the other aspectual inflections include: -:bo "be characterized by property/quality (usually negative)" (+impfv), -θoᴴč antipassive (+impfv), -(x)áá and -waᴴ "acquire condition/quality, become" (+impfv with one exception), and -yaᴴm telic/"accomplish goal" (+pfv). The use of the antipassive suffix to form complement clauses (as mentioned above) also requires that the verb be inflected as imperfective, except for the verb "say" |ho|, which can be (and generally is) perfective.

Verbal prefixes conditioning aspect inflection include: háám- "every time, each time, each instance" (+impfv), ʔIᴴčIᴴ- "try to..." (+pfv means "try and fail"; +impfv is ambiguous as to the success of the attempt), naᴴwóó- "stop" (+pfv), póóʔ- "habitually" (+impfv), and soʔ- iterative/"often, many times, over and over" (+impfv).

Finally, in involved, extended narratives, the imperfective is particularly common (used on verbs that would otherwise be expected to be perfective), as a way of tying subsequent clauses together and providing a sense of immediacy and involvement in the action (not unlike the English "historical present": "So I walk into the store, and there's this guy standing at the counter, and he gives me this weird look . . .", etc.).

Mood


The person/TAM suffixes also mark the predicate's mood, the main opposition being between realis and irrealis. The realis is used for declarative factual statements, negated factual statements, and Wh-questions. The irrealis is used for:
  • yes-no questions (no examples in the story)
  • conditionals and counterfactuals (no examples in the story)
  • hypotheticals/possibility, often in conjunction with the dubitative evidential (see (26a,b) below)
  • deontic modality (see 27 below)
  • hortatives and certain imperatives (see 28 below)
  • counter-factual subordinate clauses, generally some purposives and descriptions of non-existent things (see 29 below)
  • possible consequence, marking dispreferred outcomes ("lest X happen, in order that X doesn't occur") (see 30 below)
  • negated abilitative constructions (see 31 below)

(26a) |ʔoᴴčiᴴ|-sisa-hiᴴ > ʔočísisahi
human.die-1sg.irreal.pfv-dubit
"I may die" (line 6)

(26b) |koᴴmiᴴyiᴴ|-fi-hiᴴ > komíyifihi
come-3pprox.irreal.pfv-dubit
"(I sit here to see if) they might come" (line 13)

(27) očhó-|fáá|-íisa > hočhófááʔíisa
deont-wait.for-1sg.irreal.impfv
"(That's why I said you) should wait for me" (line 65)

(28) |kpááni|-si-oᴴkoᴴ > kpáánisiko
rest-2sg.irreal.impfv-prog
"may you rest / please rest" (line 15)

(29) póóʔ-|kpááni|-(x)áá-síí-poᴴ > póopáánixáásíípo
habit-sleep-loc.applic:an-3inan.irreal.impfv-habit
"(I have no lodge) to sleep in [=in which (I) could sleep]" (line 22)

(30) boł ki ʔayaθ ha+|háačí|-sin-poᴴ > boł ki ʔayaθ haháačísinpó
if neg before rdp+walk(sg)-1sg.irreal.impfv-habit
"Lest I wander about (with no shade) / better than me wandering about (with no shade)" (line 18; "if not yet" = "lest")

(31) ki pxáá-|šyáp|-sin > ki pxáašyasin
neg abilv-stand.up-1sg.irreal.impfv
"I'm not able to stand up" (line 33)

Evidentiality


Hikóómayíi has a limited evidentiality system, consisting of three (partly optional) suffixes which occupy the last slot in the verb and indicate the speaker's source of knowledge for or degree of confidence in the proposition represented by the verb.

The sensory -`šáá (sens) marks knowledge claimed due to sensory experience (generally vision and to a lesser extent smell and hearing, usually not used for taste or touch), but is occasionally used as well in narrative by a narrator to highlight the intense or highly discourse-relevant sensory experience of a main character. It is used this way in the Mosquito story, when Mosquito, after nearly dying in the desert, stumbles on an oasis (lines 8 and 9, see (32) below). The dubitative -hiᴴ (dubit) indicates the speaker is uncertain of the truth value of the statement, and requires irrealis marking (see (26a,b) above). The reportative -θak (rep) marks second-hand information. It is very common in traditional narratives like this one. In the story above it marks the matrix verb of the opening and closing sentence of each paragraph — one criterion for determining paragraph breaks (see (33) below).

(32) sohIᴴk-`č-yóó-nyó-`šáá > sohočóonyošáá
spring-exist:inan-3inan.real.impfv-stat-sens
"there was a spring there, he perceived [emphasizing character's sensory experience]" (line 8)

(33) |čsáá|-xaᴴ-nóó-`yóos-θak > čsááxanóoyóosθak
exit-caus-mid:an-3sprox.real.pfv-rep
"he got banished, it's said" (line 1)
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Verbs



Roots and Stems


Verb roots, the large majority of which are one or two syllables, are the uninflected bases upon which the verb word is constructed. They are written throughout this sketch between |single pipes|. Verb stems are the inflectable form of verbs — i.e., they are able to directly take inflectional affixes. Many verb stems consist of roots plus derivational suffixes (though plenty of verb roots can be used as full stems as well). Stems can also include "medials", which are incorporated noun roots or classifiers which precede certain derivational suffixes (see below).

Most verb roots are monomorphemic, but a handful incorporate a derivational suffix. They are considered roots rather than stems in such cases if the portion without the derivational suffix cannot be used without the suffix. For example, the root |šti+ʔxá| "echo" transparently includes the derivational suffix -ʔxá "noise, sound of, sound carries," but since *|šti| on its own is now meaningless, the entire complex is considered a single root.

Medials


Medials follow the verb root and some derivational suffixes, but precede others. The medial slot includes incorporated body part roots (other incorporated noun roots precede the verb stem, in Prefix Slot 2 — see below), as well as classificatory nominal-like roots which serve to specify, in some sense, the absolutive participant of the verb. These medials are:
  • =aᴴx= "someone, something," marking indefinite (underlying) absolutives (indef). When representing an indefinite underlying P, the verb is overtly detransitivized. This is illustrated several times in the story, e.g.:

    (34) sáá-ʔIᴴfoᴴ-|kičaᴴ|-aᴴx-yiᴴ-`f-maᴴ-`yóo > sáaʔfókičaxyifmayóo
    strong-need.to-eat-indef-tr-detr-by.mouth-3sprox.real.impfv
    "he was desperate for something to eat / he really needed to eat something" (line 30)
  • =čIᴴ`čiᴴ= "everything, all of it, entirety, each one," marking actions that apply fully to all individuals comprising the underlying S/P, or to the full extent or amount of the S/P. As with =aᴴx=, when incorporated into transitive verbs, the verb must be detransitivized.

    (35) |čiᴴbóó|-čIᴴ`čiᴴ-yoᴴč-wóó-nyó > čibóočíyočwóonyó
    hidden-all.of-be:an-3pprox.real.impfv-stat
    "they (the animals) are all hidden / all of them are hidden" (line 41)

    (36) |kičaᴴ|-čI`čiᴴ-yiᴴ-`f-maᴴ-`yóos > kičačíyifmayóos
    eat-all.of-tr-detr-by.mouth-3sprox.real.pfv
    "he ate all of them" (line 54)
  • =IᴴmIᴴ= "area, place, location," which essentially marks that the verb describes a specific location.

    (37) θíimíí-aᴴnaᴴčiᴴ-IᴴmIᴴ-θóó-yóó > θíimíínačimθóóyóó
    green-good-place-be:inan-3inan.real.impfv
    "it was a green, good place" (line 9)
  • =kan= "river, running water," used on verbs describing moving bodies of water.

    (38) hoθšó-fap-kan-šóó-yóó-nyó > hoθšófakanšóóyóonyó
    cool-clear-running.water-be:inan-3inan.real.impfv-stat
    "it/there was cool, clear running water" (modified from line 8)
  • =yoᴴmoᴴ= "(standing) water, liquid," used on verbs describing liquids in general or non-moving water. (No examples in the story.)
  • =xáá= "mental process, thinking, feeling," used with a number of verbs involving emotion and mental processes. It is not productive and is essentially lexicalized with those verbs with which it occurs.

    (39) |sp|-xáá-nóó-`yóo > sxáánóoyóo
    bad-mental-mid:an-3sprox.real.impfv
    "he was mistaken/wrong" (line 54)
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