Hikoomayii Story (NOW WITH COMMENTARY!)
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Levels of Inflection

In most contexts, Hikóómayíi verbs must be fully inflected, meaning they include a person/number/TAM suffix in suffix slot 1 (see below), and can optionally include a following aspectual suffix (slot 2) or evidential suffix (slot 3). By contrast, partially-inflected verbs have restrictions on suffixes. These include:
  • Conditional/Temporal verbs (which take the switch-reference (SR) enclitics =drá ss or =čí ds) cannot take aspect suffixes in suffix slot 2.
    • Same subject verbs, with =drá, when used with a conditional meaning, also cannot take a person/number/TAM suffix in slot 1.
    • Temporal verbs, when used to give background information (backgrounded temporal elaboration), cannot take any inflectional suffixes or person-marking prefixes.
  • Subordinate verbs (which take the SR enclitics =ok ss or =ko ds) cannot take aspectual (slot 2) or evidential (slot 3) suffixes.
    • Same subject verbs, with =ok also cannot take person/number/TAM (slot 1) marking.
    • However, Subordinate verbs mark negation with the inflectional suffix -woy in slot 4, whereas other verbs are negated with a separate particle, ki.

Inflectional Template

Hikóómayíi verbs are very complex, with up to 21 inflectional prefix slots and 4 inflectional suffix slots. These are listed below, counting from the slot closest to the stem and moving outward (i.e., starting with the rightmost slot for prefixes and moving left, and starting left for suffixes and moving right).


Prefix Slot (P)1 : Reduplication. Reduplication essentially has two primary uses: (a) to indicate a distributive (distribution over space, time, or patients), and (b) to indicate atelic actions (i.e., not oriented toward a goal/end-point). These two senses frequently overlap, and are clearly related. Both senses (distribution over space/time and non-goal-oriented action) can be seen in (40):

(40) oᴴkííθP18 - haP1 + |háačí| - `yóoS1 - oᴴkoᴴS2 > hokíiθhaháačiyóoko
"he was wandering about for a long time" (line 2)

Reduplication is used in forming participles (deverbals) as well, but this is a derivational rather than inflectional process. It is also required when the antipassive suffix is used as a true antipassive (in its valence-adjusting use); it is optional but not required when the antipassive suffix is used to form complement clauses.

P2 : Incorporated Noun Root. Most verbs can incorporate an uninflected noun root into P2, which serves to narrow the scope of the verb by referencing the class of patients it applies to. The incorporated noun is generic, non-specific, and non-referential. Incorporation requires that the verb be overtly detransitivized. The discourse uses of incorporation include to form new, more specific verbs (out of N-V compounds), and to background unimportant or generic referents in the discourse. (As alluded to above, incorporated body part roots are treated differently from other incorporated nouns, and they appear as medials, rather than in P2.)

(41)(=11) hkóóP2 - |fáá|-`b - íinS1 > hkóófáabíin
"I wait for people / I people-wait" (line 13; compare the following clause, "to see if any people might come", expressed with a separate nominal)

P3 : Inverse θIᴴ-. Used when the primary object outranks the subject, or the secondary object outranks the primary object, on the topicality hierarchy. (See above.)

P4 - P11 : "Adjectival Classifiers". (The misuse of the term "classifier" to describe something else has been borrowed from Athabaskan, though not the referent.) These are used in concert with a classificatory medial, and provide a description of the object or notion identified by the medial. Such constructions lack an overt verb root, and their structure is: classifier(s)-medial-be(derivational suffix). For an example of several classifiers, see (37) above. There are 8 prefix slots for classifiers; members of a given slot can't cooccur in the same verb, but members of multiple individual slots can. In order, the slots are:
  • P4: Evaluation. aᴴnaᴴčiᴴ- "good"
  • P5: Consistency. pIᴴθ- "mushy"; swííθo- "hard"; kitíí- "bumpy/rough"; etc.
  • P6: Shape. kaᴴθaᴴ- "round"; po- "broad/flat"; etc.
  • P7: Color. hiᴴxaᴴš- "black"; kšoᴴy- "white"; wóóh- "blue"; etc.
  • P8: Composition. iᴴθoᴴ- "rocky"; kóohsí- "wet"; mííka- "cloudy/opaque/turbid".
  • P9: Temperature. hoθšó- "cold"; ačíí- "hot"; etc.
  • P10: Depth. šaᴴwaᴴ- "shallow"; píídríí- "deep [of water]"; kθíin-+l "deep [of containers, etc.]".
  • P11: Size. hiní- "small"; míí- "large."

P12 : Volition. P12 contains the prefixes pxáá- abilitative (abilv), ʔIᴴ`čIᴴ- "try to", and očhó deontive mood (deont), examples of each of which can be found above.

P13: Motion Type. P13 contains the prefixes hčíwo- reversative, ʔoᴴ- venitive (venit, "come and"), and šmoᴴ- andative (andat, "go and"), e.g.:

(42) ʔoP13 - |kiᴴn|-(x)áá - yóónaS1 - očS2 - θakS3 > ʔokínááyóónačθak
"(he(obv)) came and lay down on it (his mat)" (line 19)

(43) šmoᴴP13 - |nóóθ| - yóóS1 > šmonóoθyóó
"(he) went and found it (a cottonwood tree)" (line 56)

P14 : Misc. Adverbial Notions, including `foᴴ- "slow(ly)"; naᴴwóó- "stop"; skík- "expand, extend"; soᴴfoᴴθ- "jerky motion"; etc.

(44) skíkP14 - |na| - yóóS1 - nyóS2 > skinayóonyó
"they (rocks and dirt) were spread all around" (line 75)

P15 : Restriction, containing čiᴴθIᴴ- "forced to (by external pressure)"; ʔIᴴfoᴴ- "need to, have an internal need to"; and nitóó- "undo."

(45) ʔááxiP21 - čiᴴθIᴴP15 - |kpááni| - íinS1 - poᴴS2 > ʔááxičiθpáániʔíinpo
"I have to sleep with (the scorpions)" (line 24)

P16 : Strength/Emphasis, containing kíífo- "weak(ly)" and sáá- "strong(ly), powerfully; very" often used as a general intensifier, as frequently in the story. An example with both P15 and P16 is (34) above, reproduced as (46):

(46) sááP16 - ʔIᴴfoᴴP15 - |kičaᴴ|-aᴴx-yiᴴ-`f-maᴴ -`yóoS1 > sáaʔfókičaxyifmayóo
"he was desperate for something to eat" (line 30)

P17 : "Increasing" ʔóóna-. The sense includes "increasingly, more and more."

(47) ʔóónaP17 - |wóohpí|-(x)áá - `yóoS1 > ʔóónawóohpíxáayóo
"he got angrier and angrier" (line 49)

P18 : Aspectual. The prefixes in P18 also provide aspectual meanings: oᴴkííθ- "for a long time"/durative (dur); póóʔ- habitual (habit); and soʔ- "often, repeatedly, many times, over and over"/iterative/frequentative.

P19 : Quantification. This slot contains háám- "every/each time, each instance, whenever"; íín- "once, one X worth of"; and míín- "twice, two X worth of". An example of both P18 and P19:

(48) háámP19 - soʔP18 - |miᴴxiᴴyaᴴ| - yóóS1 > háamsoʔmíxiyáyóó
"every day (lit. every time day passes)" (line 13)

P20 : Reciprocal/Cooperative ʔ-. No examples in the story.

P21 : Theme Prefix and Transitivizer. Two morpheme types occupy this slot: (1) the Theme (Secondary Object) prefixes (see discussion under Alignment above) sná- 1sg, soʔá- 2sg, k- 1pl, čo- 2pl, and ʔááxi- 3rd person; and (2) the all-purpose transitivizing prefix sóó-. The transitivizing prefix derives historically from the third person singular secondary object prefix. The general third person secondary object prefix ʔááxi- in Hikóómayíi is the historical third person plural form. Example (16) (reproduced as (49) below) illustrates the 3rd person secondary object prefix, while (50) illustrates the transitivizing prefix. Example (51) shows the transitivizer as well as a number of other prefixes.

(49)=(16) ʔááxiP21 - očhóP12 - θIᴴP3 - |nóóθ|-sóó - sisaS1 > ʔááxičhoθnóoθsóósisa
"(he) should have shown it to me" (line 50)

(50) sóóP21 - soʔP18 - |θííł|-maᴴ - yóóS1 > sóósoʔθíišmayóó
"(he didn't) chew them (lit. crumble them by mouth)" (line 55)

(51) sóóP21 - soʔP18 - ʔááP14 - θIᴴP3 - šoᴴP1 + |šóónaxí|-maᴴ - `yóoS1 - oᴴkoᴴS2 > sóósoʔáaθšóšóónaxímayóoko
"(it) was twisting around gnawing on him (lit. hitting him by mouth)" (line 61)


In contrast to the wealth of prefixes, there are only four inflectional suffix slots in Hikóómayíi verbs, as well as the switch-reference enclitics which immediately follow all non-matrix verbs. These are:
  • S1) Person/Number/TAM suffixes (discussed in various places above). One of these is required on every fully inflected verb, and marks the person (1st, 2nd, third proximate, third obviative/inanimate) and number (singular or plural) of the absolutive participant (S of intransitive, P of transitive, R of ditransitive); the mood (realis, irrealis, or imperative, or future tense); and aspect (perfective or imperfective).
  • S2) Aspectual suffixes (discussed under "Further Aspectual Suffixes" above).
  • S3) Evidentiality suffixes (discussed under "Evidentiality" above).
  • S4) Negative subordinate suffix -woy, used when negating subordinated verbs:

    (52) |sxí| - woyS4 = ok > sxíwoy-ok
    "(he remembered) that (he) hadn't seen (a garden)" (line 30)
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Clause Combining

The primary means for linking clauses is through the switch-reference (SR) enclitics. This enclitic marks whether the subject of its clause is the same as (SS = same subject) or different from (DS = different subject) the subject of another clause, as well as some indication of the semantic link between the two clauses, although a fair amount is left to context to disambiguate.

Clauses can thus be divided into matrix clauses, which do not take an SR enclitic and are generally sentence-final, and supporting clauses, which take an SR enclitic, and are grammatically dependent on and make explicit reference to another clause in the sentence. Supporting clauses are generally dependents of the immediately following clause, especially clauses in a temporal relationship (in which, following iconic principles, the following clause takes place after the preceding clause), but some Subordinate clauses may follow, or be non-contiguous with, their matrix clause.

In single-clause sentences, obviously, the verb takes no SR marking. In two-clause sentences, one clause is supporting and the other is matrix (again, usually in the order supporting-matrix). But longer sentences are possible, in which each clause is dependent on the following clause, until the final matrix clause at the end of the sentence. (There can only be one matrix clause in a sentence, except for with certain types of apposition to express elaboration or disjunction.) An extreme example from the story is (53) below (the precise semantics and uses of the various SR markers is detailed further below).

(53) "[The pitayas] were delicious and sweet, so he grabbed another handful and gulped it down, and kept eating more and more until he was totally full, then he went off and found a tall cottonwood tree and lay down in the shade under the tree to rest." (line 56)
Čas hinyam sááwóóhaʔówóošóó-yíí ski θááwóófóotóóyo-ʔóó habóyóóθááwóófóotóošyo-ʔóó habóyóočíiθwafábonsífóotóonyó-ʔóó hokíiθóónakičayóópo-ʔóó θas šámanóoyóosoč-ʔóó sa čixíími šmonóoθyóó-ʔóó hníí haxá-čixíí hníí niwó kawáhíis kinááyóóθak-aθ pxáapáániyóoθak.
časemph hinyamvery sáá-wóóha-ʔoᴴwóóy-yóó=yíístrong-sweet-taste-3inan.real.impfv=ds:seq skiagain θááwóó-fóóʔ-yóó-yoᴴ=ʔóóhold(pl.O)-by.hand-3inan.real.pfv-mtn=ss:seq aᴴboᴴyóó-pčííθ-waᴴfaᴴ-bon-siᴴ-fóóʔ-yóóna-yoᴴ=ʔóóquickly-pack-mouth-applic-body.part.incorp-by.hand-3inan.real.pfv-mtn=ss:seq oᴴkííθ-ʔóóna-kičaᴴ-yóó-poᴴ=ʔóódur-increasing-eat-3inan.real.impfv-iter=ss:seq θascompletely ʔIᴴwaᴴmaᴴ-nóó-`yóos-oč=ʔóóbloat-feel-3sprox.real.pfv-complv=ss:seq sathen čixíí-miᴴcottonwood-aug šmoᴴ-nóóθ-yóó=ʔóóandat-find-3inan.real.impfv=ss:seq hnííthere haxá-čixíídel=cottonwood hnííthere niwóat ka-waᴴhííx3inan.poss-shade kiᴴn-(x)áá-yóó-θak=lie.down-loc.applic:an-3inan.real.impfv-rep=ss:consq pxáá-kpááni-`yóo-θakabilv-sleep-3sprox.real.impfv-rep
  1. They tasted very sweet and then (ds)...
  2. He grabbed (another handful) again and then (ss)...
  3. He quickly shoved them in his mouth and then (ss)...
  4. He kept eating more and more and then (ss)...
  5. He felt completely full and then (ss)...
  6. He went and found a tall cottonwood and then (ss)...
  7. He lay down in the cottonwood's shade and consequently (ss)...
  8. He could sleep. (Matrix)

There are 10 SR clitics, 5 Same-Subject and 5 Different-Subject, listed here, which are discussed in detail and exemplified below.

Consequence/Location  =aθ=om

Subordinate: SS =ok / DS =ko

This set marks:
  • Concessives ("X, (al/even-)though Y"), in the structure "Y=subord X". To imply "even though" (the event is realized), the supporting verb is inflected for realis; to imply "even if" (the event is potential), the supporting verb is irrealis. Optionally, the conjunctive particle fbó "however" can appear between the clauses. ((54) below).
  • Most commonly, in complement constructions, marking the complement (=supporting) clause. Unlike in many other cases, with complement constructions, the clauses can appear in either order. I.e., to express "X (e.g., I know) that Y", one would say either "Y=subord X" or "X Y=subord". Optionally, the complementizer ʔiwí can appear at the beginning of the complement clause. There are a number of examples in the story; four are provided below in (55). (55a) illustrates the SS form, (55b) the DS form, and (55c) the DS with an irrealis verb.
As noted above, Subordinate verbs cannot take aspect inflection in suffix slot 2 or evidential inflection in suffix slot 3. The SS form =ok also cannot take the person/TAM suffix in slot 1 (see (55a)). In addition, Subordinate verbs mark negation with a verbal suffix -woy (as in (52) above), rather than the separate negative particle ki.

(54) θíimíínačimθóóyóó-ko fbó ʔo ki našíhííyóošáá
θíimíí-aᴴnaᴴčiᴴ-IᴴmIᴴ-θóó-yóó-`šáá=kogreen-good-place-be:inan-3inan.real.impfv-sens=ds:subord fbóhowever ʔofoc kineg naší-híí-yóó-`šááanimal-exist:an-3obv.real.impfv-sens
"...even though it was green and lovely (ds) there were no animals..." (line 9) (DS Subordinate = concessive)

(55a) ʔiwí pxáákičáxinónóoθ-ok košóonsaθočóoθak
ʔiwícompzr pxáá-kičaᴴ-xiᴴn-|nóóθ|-`f=okabilv-eat-nmzr:pat-find-detr=ss:subord |koᴴšóón|-saᴴk-θoᴴč-`yóo-θakthink-tr-antps-3sprox.real.impfv-rep
"He thought that (ss) he could find food" (line 45) (SS Subordinate = complement)

(55b) Spáaw kaʔóow θnóošxáánoxmayóos-ko košóósaθočóoθak.
spa-`:wdem:dist-obv káʔahó-`:wold.man-obv θIᴴ-|nóóy|-xáá-noᴴx-maᴴ-`yóos=koinv-bent-mental-mal-by.mouth-3sprox.real.pfv=ds:subord |koᴴšóón|-sak-θoᴴč-`yóo-θakthink-tr-antps-3sprox.real.impfv-rep
"He thought that (ds) the old man had tricked him" (line 51) (DS Subordinate = complement)

(55c) ... pxáásóomtoθčíin ʔiwí saθsóʔoł komíyifihi-ko
pxáá-|sóomtó|-θoᴴč-íinabilv-know-antps-1sg.real.impfv ʔiwícompzr xaθsoᴴʔ-ołperson-an.pl |koᴴmiᴴyiᴴ|-fi-hiᴴ=kocome-3pprox.irreal.pfv-dubit=ds:subord
"(I wait for people) to find out (ds) whether any people may come" (line 13) (DS Subordinate = complement, irrealis)

In a complement construction, the matrix clause can have scope over multiple supporting clauses — these will all be marked with a Subordinate clitic, with subject (co)reference in each Subordinate supporting clause made to the matrix clause. This can be seen in (56a), which has the structure in (56b), where both supporting clause A and B refer back to the matrix clause, rather than (in the case of clause A) an immediately contiguous clause.

(56a) ʔiwí hočhófáásíí-ko hníí hanáčikičaxin káá ʔááxiθínóoθsóó-ok čas sóoθhoyóos
ʔiwícompzr očhó-|fáá|-síí=ko,deont-wait.for-3obv.irreal.impfv=ds:subord, hnííthere aᴴnaᴴčiᴴ-kičaᴴ-xiᴴngood-eat-nmzr:pat káá3obv ʔááxi-θIᴴ-|nóóθ|-sóó=ok3.thm-inv-find-ben=ss:subord časemph sóó-θIᴴ-|ho|-`yóostr-inv-say-antps-3sprox.real.pfv
"he had said to wait for him to show him where the good food was" (line 57)

  1. [that (he) should wait for him(obv)]A=ds:subord
  2. [(that he(obv)) shows him the good food]B=ss:subord
  3. [(he(obv)) said to him that:]MATRIX

Conditional/Temporal: SS =drá / DS =čí

This set marks:
  • Conditionals and counterfactuals. For "if X then Y" these have the structure: "X=cond Y". Optionally, the supporting clause may be preceded by boł "if". The supporting clause is irrealis, while the matrix clause can be either irrealis or future — irrealis for counterfactuals, future for regular conditionals. However, when SS =drá is used, its verb does not take person/TAM marking in slot 1. There are no examples of conditionals or counterfactuals in the story, but three invented examples are given below, for SS conditional (57a), DS conditional (57b), and DS counterfactual (57c).
  • Temporal elaboration, backgrounded statements situating the action in time. These only appear in DS form with =čí, and take no person/TAM or other inflection. ((58) below.)
Conditional/Temporal verbs cannot take aspectual inflection in slot 2, and SS (conditional) =drá, and DS =čí when used as temporal elaboration do not take person/TAM or evidential inflection either. However, DS Conditional =čí can take evidential (slot 3) and person/TAM (slot 1) inflection, while SS Conditional can take evidential inflection.

(57a) Woyóok wafíxanxá-drá ʔaxačočááʔíim
woyóok3sprox |waᴴfiᴴ|-xaᴴn-xaᴴ=čítopple-tripping-caus=ss:cond |ʔaᴴxač|-yoᴴč-(x)áá-íimdistant-be:an-become:an-1sg.fut.impfv
"If I trip her (ss) I'm going to leave."

(57b) Níí wafíxanxápi-drá ʔaxačočáay
níí1sg |waᴴfiᴴ|-xaᴴn-xaᴴ-pi=drátopple-tripping-caus-3sprox.irreal.pfv=ds:cond |ʔaᴴxač|-yoᴴč-(x)áá-`ydistant-be:an-become:an-3sprox.fut.impfv
"If I trip her (ds) she's going to leave."

(57a) Níí wafíxanxápi-drá ʔaxačočáápi
níí1sg |waᴴfiᴴ|-xaᴴn-xaᴴ-pi=drátopple-tripping-caus-3sprox.irreal.pfv=ds:cond |ʔaᴴxač|-yoᴴč-(x)áá-piᴴdistant-be:an-become:an-3sprox.irreal.impfv
"If I had tripped her (ds) she would have left."

(58) Mixíyačoči-čí θyóómotáwanásóoyóoko
|miᴴxiᴴyaᴴ|-čI`čiᴴ=číday.pass-all.of=ds:temp θIᴴ-yóómotá-waᴴnaᴴ-sóó-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴinv-medicine-produce-ben-3sprox.real.impfv-prog
"All that day (ds), (he(obv)) was making medicine for him(prox)" (line 68)

Consequence/Location: SS =aθ / DS =om

This set marks:
  • Consequence, including cause, result, and purpose. "X=consq Y" can thus have implications ranging from "Y because X / because X, Y" and "X, and so/as a result Y" (59a), and "X in order that Y" (59b). Optionally, the conjunctive particle si "thus" can appear before the matrix clause, but this is not common. Note that consequence linkages can frequently also be expressed through use of the simple Sequential SR markers (see below). For the sense of "because," the alternate order of clauses (Y X=consq) is also possible, though uncommon, and requires the adverb h(aʔ)áaʔmi "soon, since, because" at the beginning of the supporting clause. This ordering seems to essentially be an extra elaboration by the speaker to clarify cause, which was not originally planned to be part of the utterance. In any event, it occurs once in the story, see (59c).
  • Location. To express "X, where/in the place that Y" one can say "Y=loc X" (as in (60a,b)). The verb in the supporting clause is usually preceded by a locative adverb, híí "here" or hníí "there" (as in (60b)) but doesn't have to be. The notion of "where Y happens" can sometimes also be expressed using a locative participle, but this is a deverbal and cannot mark person or participant coreference, so is avoided in more complex contexts.
  • Note that for both (60a) and (60b), either reading (consequence or location) is possible, illustrating a likely context where one of the senses could have led to the other. (From a comparative perspective, the locative meaning is almost certainly the original one; in most other Moose languages this is the cognate morphemes' only meaning, and consequence is indicated through Sequential markers.)

(59a) hinyam soʔsoxwoyóopoθak-aθ čsááxanóoyóosθak
hinyamreally soʔ-|soᴴxIᴴwoᴴ|-`yóo-poᴴ-θak=often-make.mischief-3sprox.real.impfv-iter-rep=ss:consq |čsáá|-xaᴴ-nóó-`yóos-θakexit-caus-mid:an-3sprox.real.pfv-rep
"he was banished (ss) because he caused too much trouble / he caused too much trouble (ss) and so was banished" (line 1) (SS Consequence = cause/reason)

(59b) ... ʔááxihosóósisa-om níí šmokičaxinxihoxbíima
ʔááxi-|ho|-sóó-sisa=om3.thm-say-ditr-1sg.irreal.pfv=ds:consq níí1sg šmoᴴ-kičaᴴ-xiᴴn-|xiᴴhIᴴx|-`b-íimaandat-eat-nmzr:pat-fetch(sg.O)-detr-1sg.fut.pfv=ds:simult,
"Tell me (where the food is) (ds) so that I can go get it" (line 38) (DS Consequence = purpose)

(59c) ʔočíčinóoyóoko, háaʔmi spáaw nohóow kóóha-woyóok θkííxáayóoko-om
|ʔoᴴčiᴴčiᴴ|-nóó-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴ,pain-feel-3sprox.real.impfv-prog, háaʔmisince spa-`:wdem:dist-obv nohó-`:wworm-obv kóóha=woyóokinsv=3sprox |θkíí|-(x)áá-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴ=omexist-loc.applic:an-3sprox.real.impfv-prog=ds:consq
"he was in great pain — since the worm was in him (ds)" (line 68) (DS Consequence = cause [elaboration])

(60a) ... hníí spáaw nohóow θkííxááyóó-om hinyam sááʔočíčinóoyóošo
hnííthere spa-`:wdem:dist-obv nohó-`:wworm-obv |θkíí|-(x)áá-yóó=omexist-loc.applic:an-3inan.real.impfv=ds:loc/consq hinyamvery sáá-|ʔoᴴčiᴴčiᴴ|-nóó-`yóo-iᴴšoᴴstrong-pain-feel-3sprox.real.impfv-incept
"there where the worm was (in his stomach) (ds) he felt a great pain / because the worm was there he felt a great pain" (line 60) (DS, location or cause)

(60b) níí ki ʔííxííyóonyó-aθ skóo-hinka póopáánixáásíípo
níí1sg kineg |ʔííxíí|-yóó-nyó=possess-3inan.real.impfv-stat=ss:loc/consq skóo=n-kainsv=1sg.poss-3inan póóʔ-|kpááni|-(x)áá-síí-poᴴhabit-sleep-loc.applic:an-3inan.irreal.impfv-habit,
"(How come) I have no (house) where I can sleep / ... I have no (house) to (=in order to) sleep there?" (line 22) (SS, location or purpose)

Sequential: SS =ʔóó / DS =yíí

The Sequential marks that the supporting clause takes place prior to the following matrix clause (the order of clauses is strict): to express "X and then Y," one says "X=seq Y". It is primarily used simply to express sequential events, but can also be used for notions of causation and result. (To more strongly emphasize the idea that one event caused or resulted in another, the Consequence SR set would be used.) Examples of SS (61a) and DS (61b) are given below.

(61a) šmomíimómayóonθak-ʔóó šmopáániyóoθak
šmoᴴ-|míimóma|-yóóna-θak=ʔóóandat-drink-3inan.real.pfv-rep=ss:seq šmoᴴ-|kpááni|-`yóo-θakandat-sleep-3sprox.real.impfv-rep
"he drank it (the medicine) and then (ss) went to sleep" (line 69) (SS Sequential)

(61b) ... sčóyiyóonyó-yíí hóómóoʔxáyóonyó
|sčóyi|-yóóna-yoᴴ=yííask-3obv.real.pfv-mtn=ds:seq |óómóo|-ʔxá-yóóna-yoᴴgroan-sound-3obv.real.pfv-mtn
"(he(prox)) asked him(obv) (where the food was) and then (ds) he(obv) groaned" (line 31) (DS Sequential)

Simultaneous: SS =fin / DS =θáá

The Simultaneous marks a supporting clause that occurs at the same time as the matrix clause; this can include states, descriptions, and gnomic statements, which don't have a set/delimited period they occur during. Examples of SS (62a) and DS (62b) are given below.

(62a) sčíkičáxinónóoθyóoko-fin hokíiθhaháačiyóoθak
ʔI`čIᴴ-|kičaᴴ|-xiᴴn-noᴴ+nóóθ-`f-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴ=fintry-eat-nmzr:pat-rdp+find-detr-3sprox.real.impfv-prog=ss:simult oᴴkííθ-ha+|háačí|-`yóo-θakdur-rdp+walk(sg)-3sprox.real.impfv-rep
"he walked around for a long time looking for something to eat / he was looking for something to eat while (ss) walking around" (line 46) (SS Simultaneous)

(62b) θyóómotáwanásóoyóoko-θáá spa wa-sayihpan kinááyóóko
θIᴴ-yóómotá-waᴴnaᴴ-sóó-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴ=θááinv-medicine-produce-ben-3sprox.real.impfv-prog=ds:simult spadem:dist wa=saᴴyiᴴhiᴴpaᴴnsuprs=mat |kiᴴn|-(x)áá-yóó-oᴴkoᴴlie.down-loc.applic:an-3inan.real.impfv-prog
"(he(obv)) made medicine for him(prox) while (ds) (he(prox)) lay on the mat" (line 68) (DS Simultaneous)
? kodé man of few words
posts: 110
, Deacon, this fucking hole we call LA
Just have to say that this is a clearer, more concise description of switch reference than I've seen in a lot of natlang grammars.
? Whimemsz posts: 34
, Novice Speaker message
Thank you! I was actually kind of worried it was unclear, so glad you found it reasonable.
? Whimemsz posts: 34
, Novice Speaker message

Very Brief Ethnographic Commentary

Mosquito (Wíixšííʔasay, lit. "little wailing creature") is the Hkóoł trickster character, and as such is vain, narcissistic, immature, and never learns lessons. This is obviously a standard Trickster story, and like any good Trickster story, while it's told partly for amusement there's a clear lesson — namely to not do whatever it is the Trickster did.

The main polemic involves the proper conduct in guest-host relations, as well as treatment of (and trusting in the wisdom of) the elderly. The old man behaves as the perfect host at all times, going out of his way to accommodate Mosquito and offering his own bed. (He is also positively portrayed by being fairly spartan and austere, only sleeping on a mat.) The proper response for Mosquito, as a good guest, is to bargain down his host's over-the-top offers, and go out of his way to not impose. He also has an obligation to treat his elders with respect and to ensure their comfort over his own, not to mention listen to their advice. (Furthermore, Mosquito is not just a younger man, but also a supernatural being, and while humans are supposed to make ostentatious offers of support to supernatural beings when these are encountered, the beings are not expected to accept most of these.)

From a linguistic standpoint, Mosquito's immaturity is alluded to in several ways. His first address to the old man, the single word ʔoyok ("who?", for "who are you?"), is very rude. More appropriate would be a full greeting, introduction of himself, and then request for the old man's name. He also uses several interjections that imply impatience or whining (yíííb is something like "maaaaaan" or "whyyyyyyy"). The long strings of supporting/SR clauses when describing him dunking his face in the spring to guzzle down water (line 17), and later stuffing his face with fruits (lines 54 and 56) also imply a sort of breathless quick succession of events, suggesting his gluttony and the speed and carelessness with which he's acting.
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