Morphology
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Verbs



Class I Verbs



Tensed Verbs


Subject Pronouns


Subject pronouns are sometimes suffixed to verbs to mark person. They clarify person when ambiguous, but do not take the emphatic force of an independent pronoun.
-ië-ne
-ek-ku
-u-in

Past Tense


The past tense is not conjugated by default, but may be conjugated using the subject pronoun suffixes, in which case the stem changes and the second syllable is stressed, except in the 1.PL and 2.PL forms.
nizlët
nizeltiënizlëtne
nizelteknizlëtku
nizeltunizeltin

Present Perfect


The present tense is not conjugated by default, but may be conjugated using the subject pronoun suffixes. Note that 1.PL and 2.PL retain the mekhfea. Note that this tense covers most notions of the simple present.
nezël
nezliënezëlne
nezleknezëlku
nezlunezlin

Imperfect Tense


The imperfect tense covers a variety of uses, including the present tense and future tense. Its aspect is imperfective, but bound by the present, meaning it indicates an action that is presently being initiated and will continue into an indeterminate time. Certain uses, such as the present continuous and the future tense can be clarified with an auxiliary.
betnëzil
betnizliëbetnëzilne
betnizlekbetnëzilku
betnizlubetnizlin

Tenseless Imperfective

In some periphrastic constructions and set phrases, Ajam prefers to use a true imperfective — an archaic verb form that signifies ongoing action which is neither bound at beginning or end. In nearly all cases, tense is clear from a previous verb or by context.
tenzil
tenziliëltenzilne
tenzilektenzilku
tenzilutenzilin


Present Continuous Tense


The present continuous may be expressed simply by the imperfect. However, it may also be expressed periphrastically with a'ëd.

Future Tense


The future may often be expressed by the imperfect. However, it may also be expressed periphrastically with nefës before the present continuous.

Tenseless Verbs


Exhortative Verbs


Exhortative verbs implore an action be undertaken: "must," "should," "ought".
ratnëzil
ratnizliëratnëzilne
ratnizlekratnëzilku
ratnizluratnizlin

Subjunctive Verbs


Subjunctive verbs ask a question, or indicate uncertainty or surprise
dutnëzil
dutnizliëdutnëzilne
dutnizlekdutnëzilku
dutnizludutnizlin

Imperative Verbs


ënzil
nizlekënzilku

Prohibitive Verbs


Prohibitive verbs are negative imperatives.
wa'tnëzil
wa'tnizlekwa'tnëzilku

Subordinated Verbs


enzilenzuul
tenziltenzuul
inzilinzuul