<!>dhoklang scratchpad...3.0? NP: shit sino-siouan?
dhoklang scratchpad...3.0? NP: Bosporan
Anthologica Universe Atlas / Academia / Department of Creativity / dhoklang scratchpad...3.0? NP: Bosporan / <!>dhoklang scratchpad...3.0? NP: shit sino-siouan?

? dhok Eastern Establishmentarian
posts: 235
, Alkali Metal, Tokyo, Japan
The Noun

The usual story: three genders, seven cases (nom/gen/acc/dat/ins/loc/voc), and several declensions. The dual is retained in that most things that come in pairs have a nominative/accusative/vocative plural deriving from the dual, and this ending also appears on any noun when it is modified by ⲍⲟⲩ 'two'.


Our masculine paradigm is ⲡⲓⲉⲭⲟⲥ 'wolf'.

	sg.     	pl.
nom.	ⲡⲓⲉⲭ-ⲟⲥ		ⲡⲓⲉⲭ-ⲉ
gen.	ⲡⲓⲉⲭ-ⲉⲥ(ⲟ)		ⲡⲓⲉⲭ-ⲟⲩⲛ
acc.	ⲡⲓⲉⲭ-ⲟⲛ		ⲡⲓⲉⲭ-ⲟⲩⲥ
dat.	ⲡⲓⲉⲭ-ⲉ		ⲡⲓⲉⲭ-ⲟⲩⲙⲟⲥ
inst.	ⲡⲓⲉⲭ-ⲟⲩ		ⲡⲓⲉⲭ-ⲟⲩⲙⲓⲥ
loc.	ⲡⲓⲉⲭ-ⲉ		ⲡⲓⲉⲭ-ⲉⲥⲓ
voc.	ⲡⲓⲉⲭ-ⲓ		ⲡⲓⲉⲭ-ⲉ

Pseudo-duals and nouns modified by ⲍⲟⲩ have a plural ending -ⲟⲩ: ⲍⲟⲩ ⲡⲓⲉⲭⲟⲩ 'two wolves'.

The genitive singular is -ⲉⲥ(ⲟ) in the earliest extant inscriptions, but later shortens, rather irregularly, to -ⲉⲥ.

O-stem neuters have a nom./acc./voc. sg. ending -ⲟⲛ as usual, with a plural -ⲁ. Their pseudo-dual is -ⲉ.


We present ⲓⲍⲟⲥⲁ 'daughter-in-law'. There has been a lot of restructuring, particularly via suffixing *y and adding consonant-stem endings, rather as in Indo-Iranian. There is no separate vocative.

	sg.		pl.
nom.	ⲓⲍⲟⲥ-ⲁ		ⲓⲍⲟⲥ-ⲁⲓⲥ
gen.	ⲓⲍⲟⲥ-ⲁⲥ		ⲓⲍⲟⲥ-ⲁⲓⲟⲛ
acc.	ⲓⲍⲟⲥ-ⲁⲛ		ⲓⲍⲟⲥ-ⲁⲓⲉⲥ		
dat.	ⲓⲍⲟⲥ-ⲁⲓⲉ		ⲓⲍⲟⲥ-ⲁⲙⲟⲥ
inst.	ⲓⲍⲟⲥ-ⲁⲙⲓ		ⲓⲍⲟⲥ-ⲁⲙⲓⲥ
loc.	ⲓⲍⲟⲥ-ⲁⲓ		ⲓⲍⲟⲥ-ⲁⲥⲓ

Nominative, genitive, accusative, instrumental singular regularly continue *-eh₂, *-eh₂s, *-eh₂m, -eh₂-bʰi/mi. Dative -ⲁⲓⲉ suffixes the athematic ending, as *-eh₂-y-ey; similarly locative -ⲁⲓ (phonetically [a.i]) is via *-eh₂-y-i.

Nominative, genitive, accusative plural all suffix the athematic endings *-es *-on *-ṇs onto an extended theme *-eh₂-y- (the nominative represents a hiatus [a.is]). The dative, instrumental, and locative plural are regular from *-eh₂mos, *-eh₂mis, *-eh₂si.

The pseudo-dual ending for the nom./acc,/voc. is -ⲁⲓ, from *-eh₂-y-h₁e. (ⲍⲟⲩ 'two' has a feminine ⲍⲁⲓ.)


The merger of *u and *o means that u-stems are no longer a productive class (the nom./acc. singular, the pseudo-dual, and acc. plural have merged). Instead, there is a small subclass of masculine o-stems with a special nominative/vocative plural ending -ⲓⲓⲥ (from *-ewes): ⲧⲓⲛⲟⲥ, ⲧⲓⲛⲓⲓⲥ 'jaw, jaws' (from *ǵénus). In the oldest inscriptions these also have a special vocative singular -ⲟ.

Neuter u-stems fare a bit better. These have a special nominative/accusative/vocative singular ending -ⲟ (rather than -ⲟⲛ), and a pseudo-dual -ⲟⲩ.

'Tree' and 'knee' are common enough that they have comprise their own, highly archaic, subdeclension.

	sg.	du.	pl.
nom.	ⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟ	ⲧⲟⲩⲣⲟⲩ	ⲧⲟⲩⲣⲁ
gen.	ⲧⲣⲟⲥ		ⲧⲣⲓⲟⲛ
dat.	ⲧⲣⲓⲉ		ⲧⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ
ins.	ⲧⲣⲟⲙⲓ		ⲧⲣⲟⲙⲓⲥ
loc.	ⲧⲣⲟⲓ		ⲧⲣⲟⲥⲓ
	sg.	du.
nom.	ⲕⲟⲩⲛⲟ	ⲕⲟⲩⲛⲟⲩ
gen.	ⲕⲛⲟⲥ	ⲕⲛⲓⲟⲛ
dat.	ⲕⲛⲓⲉ	ⲕⲛⲟⲙⲟⲥ
ins.	ⲕⲛⲟⲙⲓ	ⲕⲛⲟⲙⲓⲥ
loc. 	ⲕⲛⲟⲓ	ⲕⲛⲟⲥⲓ

The genitive, dative and instrumental singular continue regularly from *-ews, *-ewey, *-ewmi. The locatives seem to derive from the endingless locatives *dréw *ǵnéw, with the locative -ⲓ attached after the *ew diphthong had been simplified.

The duals have been reshaped, as if from *dóruh₁, *ǵónuh₁. 'Knee' has no plural separate from the dual; the plural nominative of 'tree' is probably from *dóruh₂ > *dórwa > *dówra etc., but a reshaping would be undetectable.

The oblique plurals simply attach the ending (gen. *-om, dat. *-mos, ins. *-mis, loc. *-si) onto the oblique stem in *-ew-.

Our basic paradigm is that of ⲫⲟⲩⲥⲓⲥ 'master, paterfamilias'.

	sg.	pl.	du.
nom.	ⲫⲟⲩⲥ-ⲓⲥ	ⲫⲟⲩⲥ-ⲓⲓⲥ	ⲫⲟⲩⲥ-ⲓ
gen.	ⲫⲟⲩⲥ-ⲓⲥ	ⲫⲟⲩⲥ-ⲓⲟⲛ
acc.	ⲫⲟⲩⲥ-ⲓⲛ	ⲫⲟⲩⲥ-ⲓⲉⲥ
dat.	ⲫⲟⲩⲥ-ⲉ	ⲫⲟⲩⲥ-ⲓⲙⲟⲥ
ins.	ⲫⲟⲩⲥ-ⲓⲙⲓ	ⲫⲟⲩⲥ-ⲓⲙⲓⲥ
loc.	ⲫⲟⲩⲥ-ⲓⲓ	ⲫⲟⲩⲥ-ⲓⲥⲓ
voc.	ⲫⲟⲩⲥ-ⲓ	ⲫⲟⲩⲥ-ⲓⲓⲥ

The nominative, genitive,  accusative, dative, instrumental, vocative singular continue *-is, *-yes, *-im, *-yey, *-ih₁, *-i without issue. The locative singular should give plain -ⲓ, but has been reshaped to add the consonant-stem locative ending, presumably to prevent mergers with the dual and with the nominative/accusative of neuters.  Addition of the consonant-stem ending also explains the nom., gen., acc. plural endings (the dat., ins., loc. plural are unexceptional). The pseudo-dual continues *-ih₁ as usual.

The alternation between vocalic *i and consonantal *y has been leveled out pretty much everywhere.

Neuter i-stems show singular -ⲓ, plural -ⲁ, dual -ⲓ.

Consonant stems

Not that unusual. We've been seeing bits and pieces of them imported into other paradigms, anyways. ⲙⲉⲥ m. 'moon' (oblique stem ⲙⲉⲍ-) is our paradigm.

	sg.	pl.	du.
nom.	ⲙⲉⲥ	ⲙⲉⲍ-ⲓⲥ	ⲙⲉⲍ-ⲓ
acc.	ⲙⲉⲍ-ⲉⲛ	ⲙⲉⲍ-ⲉⲥ
gen.	ⲙⲉⲍ-ⲓⲥ	ⲙⲉⲍ-ⲟⲛ
dat.	ⲙⲉⲍ-ⲉ	ⲙⲉⲍ-ⲙⲟⲥ
ins.	ⲙⲉⲍ-ⲙⲓ	ⲙⲉⲍ-ⲙⲓⲥ	
loc.	ⲙⲉⲍ-ⲓ	ⲙⲉⲍ-ⲓⲥⲓ
voc.	ⲙⲉⲥ	ⲙⲉⲍ-ⲓⲥ

The accusative, genitive, dative, locative singular endings add the expected reflexes of *-ṃ, *-es, *-ey, *-i to the oblique stem. The instrumental occasionally adds an epenthetic (schwa secundum merging with *e). The nominative singular usually adds an -ⲥ that may or may not be absent in the vocative, though not here. When it is absent, the vocative usually adds -ⲓ, imported from the o-stems, though not always.

Nominative, accusative, genitive plural are normal, adding *-es, *-ṇs, *-om. Schwa secundum appears on occasion in the dative and instrumental plurals and basically always in the locative plural if not after a stop or *n (as *-n-si > ⲍⲓ.

Pseudo-dual is regular from *-h₁e.

Neuters, of course, have a uniform nom./acc./voc., usually without *-s, with plural in -ⲁ and pseudo-dual in -ⲉ (*-eh₁).

Sub-paradigm of consonant stems: r-stems. Example is ⲙⲁⲑⲉⲣ, which needs no gloss.

	sg.	pl.	du.
nom.	ⲙⲁⲑⲉⲣ	ⲙⲁⲑⲓⲣ-ⲓⲥ	ⲙⲁⲑⲓⲣ-ⲓ
acc.	ⲙⲁⲑⲓⲣ-ⲉⲛ	ⲙⲁⲑⲓⲣ-ⲉⲥ
gen.	ⲙⲁⲑⲣ-ⲓⲥ	ⲙⲁⲑⲣ-ⲟⲛ
dat.	ⲙⲁⲑⲣ-ⲉ	ⲙⲁⲑⲉⲣ-ⲙⲟⲥ
ins.	ⲙⲁⲑⲉⲣ-ⲙⲓ	ⲙⲁⲑⲉⲣ-ⲙⲓⲥ
loc.	ⲙⲁⲑⲣ-ⲓ	ⲙⲁⲑⲉⲣ-ⲥⲓ
voc.	ⲙⲁⲑⲓⲣ	ⲙⲁⲑⲓⲣ-ⲓⲥ

Apparent lengthened-grade before the m-endings and loc. pl. is from syllabic *ṛ. Otherwise, regular.

'Sister' has an irregular paradigm because of the change of *sr to dr. Note the application of Brugmann's Law in the nominative and accusative; by analogy with 'mother', this spread to endings before consonants (where we should see e.g. expected **ⲥⲡⲓⲥⲉⲣ-ⲙⲓ in lieu of reshaped ⲥⲡⲓⲥⲟⲩⲣ-ⲙⲓ). Brugmann's is blocked in the dual by the laryngeal of *-h₁e.

	sg.	pl.	du.
nom.	ⲥⲡⲓⲥⲟⲩⲣ	ⲥⲡⲓⲥⲟⲩⲣ-ⲓⲥ	ⲥⲡⲓⲥⲟⲣ-ⲓ
acc.	ⲥⲡⲓⲥⲟⲩⲣ-ⲉⲛ	ⲥⲡⲓⲥⲟⲩⲣ-ⲉⲥ
gen.	ⲥⲡⲓⲇⲣ-ⲓⲥ	ⲥⲡⲓⲇⲣ-ⲟⲛ
dat.	ⲥⲡⲓⲇⲣ-ⲉ	ⲥⲡⲓⲥⲟⲩⲣ-ⲙⲟⲥ
ins.	ⲥⲡⲓⲥⲟⲩⲣ-ⲙⲓ	ⲥⲡⲓⲥⲟⲩⲣ-ⲙⲓⲥ
loc.	ⲥⲡⲓⲇⲣ-ⲓ	ⲥⲡⲓⲥⲟⲩⲣ-ⲥⲓ
voc.	ⲥⲡⲓⲥⲟⲣ	ⲥⲡⲓⲥⲟⲩⲣ-ⲓⲥ

Neuter s-stems

One more paradigm before bed. Neuter s-stems present no real surprises (except for the strange plural), but they do maintain e~o ablaut. Paradigm is ⲛⲓⲃⲟⲥ 'cloud'.

	sg.	pl.	du.
nom.	ⲛⲓⲃⲟⲥ	ⲛⲓⲃⲟⲩⲥ-ⲁ	ⲛⲓⲃⲓⲥ-ⲓ
gen.	ⲛⲓⲃⲓⲥ-ⲓⲥ	ⲛⲓⲃⲓⲥ-ⲟⲛ
dat.	ⲛⲓⲃⲓⲥ-ⲉ	ⲛⲓⲃⲓⲍ-ⲙⲟⲥ
ins.	ⲛⲓⲃⲓⲍ-ⲙⲓ	ⲛⲓⲃⲓⲍ-ⲙⲓⲥ
loc.	ⲛⲓⲃⲓⲥ-ⲓ	ⲛⲓⲃⲓⲥ-ⲓ

Entirely unexceptional— /z/ for underlying /s/ before /m/ is regular—except for the nominative/accusative plural. Here the usual neuter -ⲁ was added to the reflex of the Szereményi-lengthened original plural *nebʰōs.

There should be a few really irregular paradigms—'cow',  'water' are coming to mind. I'll tackle them tomorrow.