Impersonal constructions
tsi scratchpad
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Impersonal constructions
Spoken Tsi has an impersonal perfective verb structure used to express non-volition, in which there is no grammatical subject and the 'logical subject' is expressed as an indirect object. The auxiliary used for this structure is ži, derived historically from dži 'come'.

(1) nạ'rro q!òyo ži
1sg=for get_hungry come
I got hungry/I'm hungry

As is common in other contexts, ro is often treated as a serial verb, allowing dropping of the pronoun:

(2) (ạnnạ) q!òyo ro ži
1sg get_hungry for come
I got hungry/I'm hungry

This structure is very common for non-volitive action in general - again only with perfectives, however:

(3) q!ʰạ-x ro ži
left_foot-do for come
(He) fell, tripped over

It is also used for weather structures:

(4) šo-Tsààd šèèšee ro ži
down=Tsat rain for come
It rained in Tsat