Colours. Names and symbolism
Normal colours, metallic colours, elongated hybrid colours
Anthologica Universe Atlas / Universes / Hzdhavaramheli / The customs and traditions / Colours. Names and symbolism

Hellesan colours


List with the most common colour names in Hellesan. The numbers to the right of every name are their respective RGB codes.

Black


Black is the absence of light and, therefore, of colour, but it's considered a colour by all cultures of Taura. Black is the colour of soot and coal, of ebony and onyx.

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Cultural aspects


Perans, like many other ancient peoples, had black as one of the main colours and didn't distinguish it from darker shades of blue, green, grey and brown except for blantsiardu (in Hellesan, blansyard), a metallic black. Isord is a bluish black used in reference to dark seas and forests; it appears once and for the first time in the Fersead as isurdu, probably as a poetic name, although during the Middle Peran period it became popular enough as to be used to talk about the typical colour of the sea and the woods, to which Ancient Perans referred to using glamas, a colour that grouped blue, green, purple and silver. For all practical purposes blansyard is not different from nitz given the difficulty of representing the colour black with a metallic highlight in many mediums, but in Ancient Peran blantsiardu was a different colour from nitsu, the common black, even when represented pictorially. Murtumne is a rather recent name to refer to the dark grey that one perceives in absence of light; ir more or less equivalent to the Dwarvish concept of durum “dark, obscurity” and German eigengrau. Finally grey-brown and brownish-grey (furs) are also considered among blacks, although both are better catalogued among browns according to modern criteria.

Bredezhanya
In most Euremegadelanean cultures it is not customary to consider black and very dark shades the colours of mourning, but depending on the culture white or sky blue is used, or both, colours that allude to concepts like clarity, sincerity, purity and hope.
    The most part of Euremegadelanean cultures as well as Cassardians, Mazaghetes, Marnuntians, Besareans and peoples from Massadara, relate black with soil, earth and, by extension, Taura; the relation is clear: humid earth, dark coloured, much more appreciated than dry earth. In the Hellesan culture black is the colour for east, the Levant.

Erane
In the Eranean culture and religion colour black is, before anything more, the symbol of chaos, disaster and disarray, of war, violent conquest and misery, as well as the colour of hate. It's the symbol of death and the deceased. Despite this is not taken as fully negative colour, only the colour that represents unexpected events, contradictions, in the cosmic balance. On the other hand black is associated with fertile earth, and it represents and is tied with south.

Etymology and other names


The two names for black are nitz "black" (from Peran nitsu) and dalmàs "dusk” (from Peran dalmansu “obscurity, dusk”, taken from Sarden daramnsés "black, blackened, dark, dusk”, which in turn comes from the Sardanesc root daram– "black"), one of the few Sardanesc roots of Dwarvish origin, which is the base for durum "dusk, obscurity", one of the three black colours of the archaic Dwarvish cultures. Blansyard is from Peran blantsiardu, the name given to blackberries, of a shiny black with bluish and purple highlights.

White


White is the sum of all colours. It's the colour of snow and marble, of ivory and milk. There are no shades of white that are considered transitions to the other colours except in those cases of whites with a certain touch of another colour, as in bluish white, transition to blue.

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Cultural aspects


White is one of two colours (the other one is black) known with one or various names in all Tauran languages.

White is one of the colours for mourning among Euremegadelanean peoples together with sky blue, since it symbolizes ideas like clarity, sincerity, purity and hope, ideas closely tied to death and the afterworld.

Etymology and other names


Ceu (femenine ceule) and aire (the same in femenine) are, in Hellesan, the generic names for white; the first one comes from Megadelanean kaelu or kadelu, while the second comes from Peran airu, both with the exact same meaning. The concept of birght white, metallic white or snowy white, expressed with nis “snow”, clau “clear” and mairés, is that of pure white, unblemished, with a well clear and sprakling appearance. The word mairés comes from Sarden mairesos “luminous white”, derived from mares “marble” and by contamination of Peran airu “white”.
    Among whites with a shade of any other colour the most common are beige, bluish white and white with a brownish touch. About beige, in Hellesan noig or syoc, we can say that is a yellowish white, the colour of parchment and creme. Clear beige, like the shade represented above, is considered the colour of neutrality and universality and it's used, among others, by diplomatic representatives, referees and judges. Concerning the two names of bluish white, cais or cadis (femenine caisse or càdisse), come from Sarden kades, taken from Davarian kadejsh, name of a very appreciated cloth died the same colour, fabricated in Davarian cities and exported throughout the Euremegadelania since ancient times; nowadays càdisse is still used to name that cloth. Among brownish whites we emphasize two: pearl and ivory, the typical shades of what their names mean. Marromant, due to its resemblance to clear beige, is also one of the shades used as a symbol of neutrality, although that one is of a more white shade than this one.
    Other names for white include the adjectives cevant “off-white” and cevantís “whitish”.

Red


Red is the colour of blood and the common poppy, of grape and strawberries. Is a very abundant colour in nature and can change towards orange or violet shades.
    Naufe "flame" is considered the transitional colour between reds and oranges, viré "ruby" is considered the transitional colour between reds and purples, and rogast "rust" is the transitional colour between reds and browns.

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Cultural aspects


Due to its strong ties with heart and blood, and most specially with the idea of shed or warm blood and a heart beating strong, red shades are associated with courage and a brave death in the battlefield as well as with strength, passion, rage or joy, concepts that refer to moments or feelings in which blood tends to concentrate near the skin, reddening it. Orangish reds, like scarlet, vermillion or flame, are strongly tied to the idea of astuteness and inventiveness, qualities represented by Rogall, a genius represented as a burning squirrel in the sacred Sateperan cult.
    More specifically the scarlet shade (feniç) was already priced in Antiquity, since the tincture of that colour was obtained from the Cassardian cochineal (Porphyrophora hamelii) and its production was hard enough. Due to this tincture's high price the colour was already associated to wealth, power and luxury since ancient times, being the preferred among Cassardian ladies and Marnuntian priests, which associated this shade with the colour of the scarlet ibis, from which the Hellesan word for the shade takes its name.
    The viré "ruby" shade, on the other hand, has been related with prostitution among the Megadelanean peoples. The origin if such relation is not clear at all, but it is said that among prostitutes was popular to paint their lips with this shade, and from that the trend passed to clothing. Between the 32nd and 33rd centuries wealthy prostitutes dressed in ruby, including gloves, hats and shoes, as a symbol of fortune and, therefore, of good health, whereas in Cassardian and other peoples of the Rodis ruby has always been considered a luck and strengh bearer stone, and for that reason it has been used since time immemorial to adorn warriors' weapons, shileds and armours. Consequently ruby shade has adorned and adorns the clothings of high rank warriors and soldiers as well as these of kings military nobles.

Etymology and other names


Gualda comes from Middle Peran gualta "yellowish red", probably from Archaic Peran *buers– (the same origin as guès "blood"), which comes from Sate phar– “to exit, to leave a place”. Gair and guaire come from Sardaniese guaire, from Middle Peran guarnir "yellowish red", literally "that yellow-reddens", from guar– “red” + –nir (agent suffix), probably from Archaic Peran *buers–, the same origin as gualda. Gairant is formed upon gair "yellowish red" + –ant (an adjectival suffix). Gairol comes from Archaic Hellesan and Late Peran gairoles, from Sardaniese gaeroles, from Peran giaunir "yellowish red", from Archaic Peran gal– "red"; its relation with Madinesian kharyûl "yellowish red" and khâr "red" is not clear at all. Naufe literally means "flame". Cirent would come from Common Megadelanean theira "bonfire", from Madinesian thîr "fire". Medangís and medià come from Peran midianu, from midiu "reddish orange, yellowish red". Feniç "scarlet" is, in fact, the Hellesan name of scarlet ibis, a bird from the Madana worshipped byMarnuntian priests. Guès and guesatz literally mean "blood" i "bleeding", and it's also literal the  name ro(g)ast "rust". Viré is one of the names given to rubies, and is of Cassardian origin Fardegaire "terracotta" means "yellowish-red earth". Arró comes from Lansese arronse or Enolian arronzi, both "full-grown, mature", related to Hellesan renatz "full-grown (fruit)".

Yellow


Yellow is the colour of the Sun and lemons, of weaver's broom flowers and the saffron spice. Yellow transitions towards green with its greenish yellow shades, and towards orange with shades like saffron and dark amber.

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Cultural aspects


Generally speaking Megadelanean cultures differentiate both yellow and orange, considering them different colours, alhtough in ancient times Bernic peoples considered the darkest shades among browns, while the lightest shades of orange and yellow were considered among yellows. That tradition still lives in the heraldic and vexillological customs of the Euredean peoples of Bernic tradition. On the other hand Rodisian cultures, ancient and modern, view reds, clear browns and dark oranges as one single colours, puting amber as a dark shade of yellow.
    Due to its resemblance with gold's proper shade, it's the colour that simbolixes material wealth, and due to being associated with the colour of the Sun and of light it's also the preferred color to represent rulers' power and dignity.

Etymology and other names


Jond and cerol are the most cmmon names in Hellesan to name yellow. Cerol is related to cerole "lemon", and this name, when used in a restrictive way, refers to the lemon skin's colour or a bright and vivid yellow shade. The word jond comes from old Fernond gjeon "yellow", from the Bernic root gayo "bright, shiny", from which the name for the Sun is also derived.

Blue


Blue is the colour of the sea and the sky, of sapphires and blueberry. Mazzare is considered the transitional colour between blues and purples, while carde syet is the one between blues and greens.

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Cultural aspects


To many cultures of Antiquity there was no distinct names for blue and gree, and this was the case for Perans, who used glamas to talk about a colour that grouped blues, greens and even silver. Peoples of the Madana didn't differentiate between shades of blue and green, and even today madanigh has azavhez for "blue and green". Among the nordish peoples the root berel– grouped dark blue and black, being xxx used for lighter shades of blue, which grouped it with light green and greenish shades of yellow, too. Cassardian, on the other hand, separates light blue (xxx) and dark blue (xxx) as different colours, and within the dark blue concept includes purple; it also differentiates blue from green (xxx) and from black (xxx), but in the old tradition dark-skinned peoples have been named xxx “green burnt”.

Being the colour of the sea and the sky, both spaces of an immense vastness, blue is a symbol of freedom, greatness, infinity and new schemes on the horizon. It's, also, the colour of harmony and peace, which makes it very popular in coat of arms and flags. In the Cassardian culture dark shades of Persian Indigo (mazzare) are used in mourning due to the connection of this colour with deceased people and their spirits. The tradition of painting the face dark blue to commemorate the deceased, whether in the Day of the Dead or in wakes and burials, comes from Cassardia and the Rodis.
    Darnís is a little luminous variant of blue, although not too dark. It's one of the two shades used in Bredezhaniese heraldry to represent blue; specifically darnís murt, used as the dark counterpart for eravern.
    Glam llirant is the colour associated with royalty in the Hellesan culture, as it is used by the other Megadelanean peoples through cultural inheritance. Together with eravern can be seen, for example, in the flag of Hellea. The main reason for that association would the indigo used to dye the rich robes of ancient monarchs which, it is thought, also stained these monarch's pale skins, giving them a bluish skin. That was rapidly and easily associated with the bluish skin that gods have according to the Euremegadelanean beliefs systems.

Etymology and other names


Glam is the Hellesan generic name for blue. The other two most common names are gan and mai. Glam comes from Peran glamas or Megadelanean glama, which seems to be a Sate construction gar “ice; smooth, polished” or Megadelanean gala “to shine, to bright” + Peran glamas "blue, green, purple and silver" (origin of Hellesan glam "blue"), from an older maganu “deep blue, dark blue”, from which the Hellesan word mai derives. The name Megadelanya (Megadelanean in English) comes in part from one of these roots: maganu “deep blue” + adelan “linen, cloth”.

Green


Green is the colour of plants, especially of grass and tender foliage. It is, as well, the colour of certain fruits like pears or olives, and of certain minerals like, for example, jade and emerald.
    Carde syet “old copper” is considered the transtion colour between greens and blues, while alea “olive” is the step between brown shades while marf-cerol “green-yellow” represents the transition towards yellows. Marf clau "light green" can refer to leaf green and apple green shades.

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Cultural aspects


In many cultures green is viewed as a positive colour, been tied to concepts like youth, life and vicacity, clam or peace. The most blueish shades, though, can refer to negative or ambivalent ideas; for example, ratze syet as well as carde syet are used to symbolize decadence, stagnation, senility or decrepitude. In Hellesan expressions like àger ratze syet “to be old bronze” and glam sam carde “blue like copper” mean having lost most of the former value, to have become unusable, to be old-fashioned or to be obsolete.
    Ivy colour symbolizes prosperity and fertility, and is the shade of green tied to marriage, weddings and family, something not surprising when in the Hellesan tradition ivy is the plant that represents marriage.

Etymology and other names


Ancient Perans had a word, glamas, that brought together the shades of blue, green and purple, and the colour of silver. Lately they adopted from sardens the word maryphon “vibrant blueish” or “vivid blueish” to refer to green with marfas, origin of Hellesan marf "green".
    Armascan green is so called because of the ancient fabric dyed in that shade of green and originary to Central Armasca through the Mazaghi caravan routes.

Grey


Grey is the colour of ash and some metals, of rain clouds and many rocks. It's also a pretty common colour in certain animal skins, furs and plumages like owls, elephants and dolphins. There are warmer or colder shades of grey depending on the amount of other colours in the mix. Neutral is a quite neutral colour that can transition to any other colour, although people use to consider it a lighter shade of black.

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Cultural aspects


In many ancient Tauran cultures grey wasn't a colour in its own right but a gradation of black. This is still the idea in many modern cultures, where the availability of a wide range of inks and artificial paints break the old barriers of natural pigments and allow accepting as colours a wider range of shades, making the concept of grey as a mere shade of black an exception to the rule.

Etymology and other names


Mmm

Brown


Brown is the colour of wood and humid earth, and of many mineral pigments. It is also the colour of a wide range of furs and plumages as well as many animal skins and fruits. Reddish shades like rogast “rust”, gafard “chestnut-like” and farde gairant “sienna” are considered the trasition between browns and reds.

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Cultural aspects


The English concept of brown is not too different from that represented by berdà and nogant, the two words used by Hellesan to refer to the colour resulting from mixing red, black and yellow or red, yellow and blue. To the ancient peoples, though, the concept could vary enormously, even within a small geographic area we could find differences even though brown being one of the most abundant colours in ancient and prehistoric art thanks to the large amount of natural pigments like umber or ochre, among many others.
    It's known that almost all ancient Megadelanean peoples had words to refer to dark shades of black and red, basically used to talk about animal furs, wood and earth. Thus Megadelanean has the root bhru– "brown", which gave Peran furu (from which Hellesan fur "grey-brown, brownish grey"), Bernic brund, Madinesian vheroz or Rodisant phero. Iscanian people didn't have the concept of grey-brown or brown as we know it today: darker shades were considered within black together with most shades of blue, while lighter browns, like ochre or copper, were considered shades of red or yellow. That's the reason why in Iscanian myths about the Gagant wars sources talk about «the blood-coloured earth» or «Lämnarott sheep, with their fur like the colour of the sea».
    Concerning Perans ancient sources often talk about the colour of certain elements that we tie to the idea of brown or grey-brown. In the Fersead references to the colour of flocks and herds are abundant, which are referred as «the colour of sheep» and «the colour of cattle», although in two occasions sheep wool with which Dainae wove Ferseus' robes is qualified as «the colour of dusk», which inevitably must refer to a dark shade. In the Fersead and other later works, about the sea it is repeatedlt said that is of the colour of bronze («the sea like bronze», «the bronze-coloured sea»), and in three occasions the word xxxx appears, literally "of cypress" to imply the colour of the sea, although it is argued that it should be a dark shade with a certain green or blue touch.

Etymology and other names


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Orange


Orange, a shade between red and yellow, is the colour of oranges, some carrots, sweet potatos, pumpkins and saffron, of flowers like pot marigolds or dahlias, of minerals like orpiment and realgar, and of pigments like ochre and cadmium sulfate.
    Lhadre is considered the transitional colour between orange and yellow, and naufe is seen as a shade halfway between orange and red. Garís and corsant can be taken as shades of pink.

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Cultural aspects



Bredezhanya
In Bredezhan cultures orange is the colour of love and friendship, and it's associated to joy and happiness.

Madana
The Madani peoples make a great symbolic use of orange because it's the colour that represent warmth and, by extension, love, friendship and esteem; it also represents virtues such as temperance and patience, and for this reason is linked to modesty and prudence and circumspection. It's used as the colour of diplomacy, symbolizing dialogue, peace and harmony, and it's used in flags to indicate truce or armistice. Orange also represents the feminine side, and tied to this, erotism and sensuality, sibylline intuition and perspicacity. Madani peoples also use orange and light shades of brown (bronze, copper, ochre) as symbols of calm and tranquility, especially peace of spirit.

The Southern Seas
Saffron (najva, in Masdari) is a colour common to the peoples of the Southern Seas, since it represents fire, which gives warmth to Taura and homes. It is, therefore, a colour very tied to the sacred, a colour of peace, sanctity and family. Najut teached humankind the use of fire, and thus it allowed the beginning of human civilization; it is, therefore, the colour of civility, good government and authority.

Etymology and other names


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Purple


Purple, a mix of blue and red, is the colour of dye obtained from certain sea snails known by the name Murex. In its more violet shades is a colour present in many flowers, like the saffron flower, the heartsease or the iris. It's also the colour of aubergines, and can be obtained from minerals like manganese, hematite or purpurite.
    Mavil, which appears in two variants: aran “indigo” and mazzare “persian indigo”, is considered the transition colour between purple and blue shades. Viré “ruby” is considered the transition between purple and red.

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Cultural aspects



Bredezhanya and Cassardia
Among Euremegadelanean peoples as well as Cassardians purple is the colour of greed and envy due to its relation to porphyry's colour, stone that the gods desire with folly, at least according to the ancient myths. Closely related to that, purple is as well the colour of opulent and lavish wealth.
    Moisse "pink" wasn't considered an independent colour until very recently, being put among orange or red shades. Even today some cultures, like Megadelanean and Cassardian peoples, don't count it as a true colour.

Erane
Eranean peoples tie the colour purple or dark blue (zamir) to that that is rare and pure as well as special. It's the colour of intuition and the sixth sense, and the shades closer to purple or indigo symbolize feminity and woman.

Etymology and other names


Moisse and mosye come from Lanse moèisse, adaptation of Tassalean mòzh the evolution of Peran meudiu, from Middle Peran midiue “reddish cheek” or Sarden mydion “reddish purple, magenta” (consider also Peran maudisas "carnation").

Ancient colours


The Hellesan concept of ancient colour (sanís feruc, en heŀleu) refers to a set of colours inherited from Peran that don't match with the current idea of colour among the Hellesan people. The reason is Perans' different appreciation of colour from a cultural perspective and concerning at least two points: first, that one word could enfold different shades that nowadays are considered colours in its own right and, second, that certain colours with a metallic touch were seen as different colours than its respective non-metallic partners. The colours we are talking about are veli, peure, capri, tarsyent, eralme, gable, blansyard, lhaurès and rogall.

Veli


Veli is a gradation of red or brown to a yellowish colour, which can be bright shades like lemon or cream or darker shades like golden. Middle shades are orangish and pinkish. The word can be found in Peran (bieliu) and Sarden (uelios) to refer to a colour that didn't distinguish these shades, even though the name's origin is Madanian (vitl– “sunlight; sunshine”) through some Rodisian language like Davarian (wîlya). Peran used kereli “lemon” to refer to colour yellow and buers “blood” was used for red, and did not distinguish those from orange or pink because both weren't considered colours, although ginger red and yellowish red were represented in Middle Peran by the adjective midianu “reddish cheek”, from midiue “blushful cheek”.

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In nature we find many examples of veli. For example, many leaves and forests are coloured, in autumn, in those shades, as well as fruits like apples and peeches, ginger people and animal furs like those of foxes and dogs. Brown shades appear in beer.

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Peure


Colour peure is the transition from green to red through an intermediate colour with a dark golden shade, quite close to metallic gold (lhaurès tachírid) or metallic bronze (ratze tachírid). The oldest mention of the word appears twice in Satic palace documents as pu-u-re, and it is believed that it refers to orchard products ―fruits or vegetables― half ripped, which show reddish and greenish shades as a result of the ripening process. It appears again in Peran as peburu in some texts, the context of which give the same idea than the Satic documents: the colour of ripening fruit.

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Peure can be found in leaves and vegetables in the process of becoming fully ripe and show green and red shades with intermediate shades.

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Capri


Capri is a colour between the reddish and purpleish shades with intermediate pinkish shades, from ruby to pink passing through mauve, and with a shimmering or metallic appearance. It's one of the ancient colour without a direct Satic origin, since it refers to the purple in Cassardian kings' silk robes, subject to a special treatment to adquire that characteristic shimmering effect that was so renowned in the Days of Old. The name, capri, comes from Davarian qoparis, name given to the mollusc murex, from which the Tyrian purple inl was produced, in Hellesan known as aspre llirant “royal purple”.

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Beyond being the colour obtained from the secretion of some molluscs and the derived inks capri can be found as well in other natural elements like lavender fields, the thistle flower or one of the colours of the sky at sunset.

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Below the murex mollusc can be seen beside its secretion (upper left) followed by examples of Cassardian silk in royal purple and its characteristic shimmering effect.

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Tarsyent


Tarsyent represents the transition from bluish black or very dark blue (in Hellesan, isord) to a light colour that varies from white, beige or pearl. The name comes from Archaic Hellesan tarscente, loanword from Fernon tarstjan “dusk”, and for that reason it was and still is the colour associated to morrow and dusk.

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In nature we find this colour in the sky during morrow and dusk, and in certain animal skins and furs such as those of elefants and dolphins, both sacred animals to Perans and Hellesans. It's as well a predominant colour in many winter landscapes thanks to the effect of mist and snow.

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Eralme


The Peran word glamas is often translated as "blue" because it evolved into Hellesan glam “blue”, but for ancient Perans the concept of glamas embraced all the other shades that Hellesan consider belong to blue as well as green shades without yellow or very little yellow, and the metallic silver colour, today represented as light or pale grey. At a later date Perans adopted maryphon from Sarden, a word of Madinesian origin that means “vibrant bluish” or “vivid bluish”, which may be considered, back then, a mere shade of maraz “blue”; maryphon is the origin of Hellesan marf “green”.
    Before that evolution of glamas, though, Perans had already developed a word for a specific kind of blue that, in fact, is a degradation of intense blue towards bluish white: erbalamas, clearly a compound of Ancient Peran erbalu “sky” and glamas “blue” that well could be translated as “airblue”. Poet Edovi may be the oldest source that more often used the word in his works and personal writings, and it's important to note that the most of the times he used it to refer to the “colour of morning sky after a rainy night”, has he defined it. Some historians believe that it was Edovi himself who made up the name, but that is not sure at all; by all means the morning sky seems to have been the origin of this colour's perception, particularly when it's mixed with the blue of the sea. During the Sarden imperial time the word appears as eralmas, more rarely written oralmas, and is applied to other natural elements beyond morning sky; thus, for example, geographer Otiŀles the Younger use it to define the colour of “the mountains of ice that float in boreal seas”. From this later form, eralmas, we have Hellesan eralme.

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In nature we can see this colour in the clear morning skies, particularly when it melts with the intense blue of the sea, as well as in clear sea waters near beaches of white sand, and in the ice of icebergs.

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Gable


Gable isn't an easy colour to define from an historical point of view because it appears in various sources, in contexts or with explanations that can be interpreted with differing definitions. It is accepted that gable comes, through metathesis, from Ancient Peran glamas, word that refers to a colour that groups shades of intense blue and green (including purple shades) as well as silver. Although in the evolution from Peran to Hellesan the word gave glam "blue", opposed to both marf “green” and arlant “silver”, glamas evolved in parallel giving Hellesan gable to refer to the original Peran concept or a wide part of it, since in later texts we find the word (as gablos and gamalos) used as names of a colour that seems intimately related to the idea of iridescence, concept not far from the Peran idea of metallic colour.

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Above we see two interpretations of gable. We can find these shades in iridescences present in water, certain insects' exoskeletons and birds, as well as in natural gas, among other examples.

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Blansyard


Colour blansyard is a metal-looking shade that can contain blue or purple traces in its reflections. The name is of Peran origin, blantsiardu, the same word to name blackberries. This polysemy may be due to blackberries shiny appearance, which is a deep black with bluish reflections. It appears mentioned a few times in the Fersèada always alluding to the colour of hair with the only exception of one reference to Ferseu's shield («with his shield of blansyard»).
    This colour name still exists in Hellesan as a shade of black. It's impossibñe to represent its shiny metallic quality using RGB or HEX codes, but an approximation may be RGB 9 8 7.

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Lhaurès


Lhaurès is a metallic yellow, this is the golden colour, which can include reflections of reddish or greenish light. Tha name lhaurès is only for the colour (from Peran laladar– “golden”), different from the concept of gold as a metal, in Hellesan lhaure (natural gold) and lhaur (refined gold), both from Peran ladaras; all these forms come from Sate ra-ra-di “gold”. To Perans laladaras was a different colour from bieliu “veli” and kereli “lemon colour”, although this one appeared centuries later, during the Middle Peran period.

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Colour lhaurès can be find in gold and in blond hair, as well as loght brown hair with golden reflections, and in olive oil and champagne too.

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Rogall


The metallic colour with a light between reddish and bronze is rogall, evolution of Peran rugalias, term derived from rugas “great fire”, which itself comes from Sate rug– “fire” (in an animated sense). To Perans this was a different colour from buers “blood” (origin of Hellesan guesatz “bloody” and gualda “red”) and from bieliu (in Hellesan veli “red yellow”), because it defined a colour more or less dark ―which we would consider brownish― with reddish reflections; different, as said before, from the granate colour of dry blood and the flammeous we see in red-haired people, to which, in this case, they referred as bieliu.

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Rogall can be seen in dark hair with reddish reflections, in some woods like mahogany, but also in clear woods when barnished, as well as metals like bronze, copper and iron, and in some furs.

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The other metallics


The rest of metallic colours did not survive the Peran language, if they really existed. Presumably the colour of silver was already represented by Peran glamas (named gable in Hellesan), word that grouped shades of blue, green, purple and silver itself; but if Perans did have the concept of metallic silver represented by a proper name, such has not arrived to us or it's just the same common word for the metal, arlantas. A trace of the later is that in ancient Peran texts they also speak of bronze as a colour using the name of the metal, ragasaradi or raksaradi; but such use is suprising for two reasons: first, the colour for metallic bronze was already represented by rugaliu; second, they use that word to describe the colour of sky. The most logical and adequate explanation is that ragasaradi meant old bronze, that is, rusty bronze, of bluish and greenish shades.

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Main Peran colours.


Symbolism of colours


For the peoples of Bredezhanya and the Southern Seas colours play very important roles in culture and religion, showing deep meanings that transcend mere decorative values. Throughout history, in the many cultures and civilizations from Eurede to Massadara, artists use specific colours for statues and paintings of deities, in gala and cerimonial clothes, in the decoration of temples and relevant buildings in order to represent the desired ideas, concepts or qualities, etc.
    Consequently colour is part of a visual language that doesn't need words or syntax, and is part of the everyday life of milions of people in all these lands.

Diagram of chromatic symbolism


Here we can see a table with cultural concepts shared by different cultural areas discussed in this work. They are reunited into 70 different categories to ease their representation.

The 70 cultural concepts

1. Laziness, sloth, passivity.
2. Warning.
3. Water. Liquid.
4. Air. Gas. Sky, celestial.
5. Friendship, loyalty, relation.
6. Love, esteem.
7. Anarchy, chaos, disarray.
8. Learning, knowledge.
9. Art, creativity, imagination.
10. Authority, government. Civility.
11. Greed, stinginess (see also #25).
12. Beauty, aesthetics.
13. Insanity, craziness.
14. Goodness, benevolence.
15. Warmth, heat. Summer.
16. Calm, tranquillity; temperance, patience, self-control. Meditation.
17. Conservadorism, stagnation, inaction.
18. Courage, bravenes.
19. Cowardice. Emptiness of spirit.
20. Cruelty, ruthlessness.
21. Decadence, decrepitude. Winter.
22. Divinity, god, sacred, religion. Sanctity.
23. Mourning.
24. Deception, lie, falsity. Hypocrisy.
25. Envy, jealously. Greed (see also #11).
26. Erotism, sensuality.
27. Aether. Condensate or quintessence. Void, space or totality. Cosmos, universe or the Creation.
28. Extravagant. Exuberant, barroque, bizarre. Problems, complications.
29. Feminity.
30. Fire. Plasma.
31. Cold, coldness. Winter.
32. War, turmoil. Misery, disarray, misfortune.
33. Honour.
34. Intelligence. Cunning, wit.
35. Intuition, perspicacity, sixth sense.
36. Anger, rage, annoyance. Hatred.
37. Joy, happines. Celebration, diversion. Spring.
38. Justice.
39. Ugliness. Deformation, tergiversation.
40. Luxury.
41. Lust, vice.
42. Illness, bad health.
43. Evil, malevolence.
44. Masculinity, virility.
45. Lie, illusory emotion; mistake, to be mistaken due to one's own ignorance. Ignorance. Stupefaction, perplexity.
46. Modesty, humbleness; discretion, prudence. Respect.
47. Death. Afterlife.
48. Excessive pride, vainglory, hybris, arrogance, ego.
49. Passion, excitation, impulse, energy.
50. Peace. Harmony, balance.
51. Grief, penance.
52. Danger.
53. Power, strength.
54. Fear, dread, terror.
55. Progressism, advance, impulse. Action, activity, movement. Revolution.
56. Purity, clarity, stainless. Sincerity.
57. Rationality, logic.
58. Radicality, extremism.
59. Royalty, monarchy.
60. Repellant of evil, protection against evil eye and spells. Protection, defense.
61. Material wealth, money.
62. Hardiness, resistence, resilience.
63. Good health, healthy. Healing. Purgative, exorcizing.
64. Wisdom.
65. Luck (good or bad), fate, destiny, fortune.
66. Earth, soil; tectonic. Solid. Taura.
67. Truce, armistice.
68. Sadness, unhappiness, grief.
69. Life, growing, prosperity. Nature. Fertility. Spring.
70. Violence, annihilation, murder. Misery, disaster.

There are more concepts not included in this table. Not all cultures tie concepts to colours.

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The 6 cultures
The six great cultures are the Euremegadelanean (EuMeg), traditional Dwarvish (Nan), Eranean (Erane), Madanian (Madana), Marnuntian and Besarean (MaBes) and that of the Southern Seas (MdS).