Anthologica Universe Atlas / Universes / The Allosphere / Kangshuic / Proto-Kangshuic / Morphosyntax / Aspect

Proto-Kangshuic distinguished two aspects: perfective and imperfective. Verbs are considered to be either perfective or imperfective by default. "Switching" aspects is performed in various ways depending on the intrinsic aktionsart of the verb and its semantics.

For perfective intransitive verbs, the aspect switch is always performed by forming a light verb construction with the "copula" -k:

ʒày 'fall' (inherent perfective)

'I fell'

ŋè-1s.I-kCOP ʒàyfall
'I am falling, fall repeatedly'

The irrealis light verb náˀ becomes a prefixed ná- with the light copula.

ŋè-1s.I-náˀIRR ʒàyfall
'I might fall, will fall'

ŋè-1s.I-kCOP ná-IRR-ʒàyfall
'I will fall repeatedly'

For inherent imperfectives, the prefix attaches to the main verb but the perfective particle gò appears after the verb. Descendant branches disagree on whether this particle is sentence-final or phrase-final.