Quote/Info Dump: Two Spirits Among Algonquians
:[h2]Men as Women[/h2]
[h3]Fr. Jacques Marquette[/h3]
JR 59: pp 128-29
[url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Marquette]Father Jacques Marquette[/url] was an important early Jesuit missionary to New France. He was apparently the first(?) observer to mention the two-spirit custom in New France, describing it among the Illinois and Sioux in 1674:
[quote]Je ne scais par quelle superstition quelques Ilinois, aussi bien que quelques Nadoüessi, estant encor jeunes prennent l'ha...
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Quote Thread (2017-10-18 23:33:46)
<@vlad> YOU KNOW WHAT'S TERRIBLE
<@vlad> mainstream australian views on aborigines
<Cev> You can probably replace "mainstream australian" with "mainstream Anglosphere"
<@vlad> does the mainstream anglosphere even know what aborigines are
<Cev> They sit in the desert half-naked blowing in didgeridoos and talking about the dreamtime
<@pharazon> aborigines are born 70 years old
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Quote Thread (2017-09-12 23:45:49)
<@Legion> I remember this tagline from the "Hard-sci movie plots" twitter
<@Legion> "An alien spacecraft collides with Earth at relativistic speed; Earth is instantly destroyed."
<Cevf> I get a feeling lots of these end with "Earth is instantly destroyed"
<Cevf> "Earth is hit with a direct beam from a gamma ray burst; Earth is instantly destroyed"
<Cevf> "The frontier of quantum vacuum collapse approaches at the speed of light; Earth i...
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Quote Thread (2017-07-28 14:16:15)
:<@guitarplayer> i guess the authors really disliked the imbalance bewteen having a single grapheme, ß, opposing a compound grapheme, SS
<Slereah> Germany stopped using SS because those letters brought back poor memories
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Hikoomayii Story (2017-05-27 16:30:17)
Hikóómayíi is a highly endangered language, spoken with full fluency by a few dozen people (all over the age of 50), plus several hundred individuals (including some adolescents) with passable competency or who are able to understand but not speak it. The form spoken by younger individuals shows a number of simplifications and features heavily influenced by the dominant language of the region, Réĝledh, and such speakers tend to code-switch between Hikóómayíi and Réĝledh (...
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Quote Thread (2017-06-17 21:03:41)
:<twabs> my conlang has an activist-statist system
<twabs> it's pretty brutal
<twabs> instead of pronouns I have protests
<twabs> and the secret police take away any nouns that don't conform to the regular patterns of inflection
owned by Whimemsz, last edited 2017-06-17 21:03:41.
Hikoomayii Story (NOW WITH COMMENTARY!) (2017-06-10 17:04:21)
:[h2]Very Brief Ethnographic Commentary[/h2]
Mosquito ([i]Wíixšííʔasay[/i], lit. "little wailing creature") is the Hkóoł trickster character, and as such is vain, narcissistic, immature, and never learns lessons. This is obviously a standard Trickster story, and like any good Trickster story, while it's told partly for amusement there's a clear lesson -- namely to not do whatever it is the Trickster did.
The main polemic involves the proper conduct in guest-host relations, as we...
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Hikoomayii Story (NOW WITH COMMENTARY!) (2017-06-08 01:21:10)
The primary means for linking clauses is through the [b][u]switch-reference (SR)[/u][/b] enclitics. This enclitic marks whether the subject of its clause is the same as ([b][u]SS = same subject[/u][/b]) or different from ([b][u]DS = different subject[/u][/b]) the subject of another clause, as well as some indication of the semantic link between the two clauses, although a fair amount is left to context to disambiguate.
Clauses can thus be divided into ...
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Hikoomayii Story (NOW WITH COMMENTARY!) (2017-05-31 22:23:26)
:[h3]Levels of Inflection[/h3]
In most contexts, Hikóómayíi verbs must be [b][u]fully inflected[/u][/b], meaning they include a person/number/TAM suffix in suffix slot 1 (see below), and can optionally include a following aspectual suffix (slot 2) or evidential suffix (slot 3). By contrast, [b][u]partially-inflected[/u][/b] verbs have restrictions on suffixes. These include:
[ul][li]Conditional/Temporal verbs (which take the switch-reference (SR) enclitics [b]=drá[/b] [sc]ss[/sc] or [b]=č...
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Hikoomayii Story (NOW WITH COMMENTARY!) (2017-05-31 13:48:20)
[h3]Roots and Stems[/h3]
Verb [b][u]roots[/u][/b], the large majority of which are one or two syllables, are the uninflected bases upon which the verb word is constructed. They are written throughout this sketch between |single pipes|. Verb [b][u]stems[/u][/b] are the inflectable form of verbs -- i.e., they are able to directly take inflectional affixes. Many verb stems consist of roots plus derivational suffixes (though plenty of verb roots can be used as full stems ...
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Hikoomayii Story (NOW WITH COMMENTARY!) (2017-05-28 16:42:05)
[h4]Obligatory Aspect Inflection[/h4]
All fully inflected verbs in Hikóómayíi take a suffix marking person/number/obviativity/animacy of the absolutive (S/P/R), mood/tense (realis, irrealis, or future -- see below), and aspect (perfective or imperfective). [b][u]Perfective[/u][/b] ([sc]pfv[/sc]) predicates are prototypically those viewed "externally," with a defined beginning and end, and no focus on internal structure. [b][u]Imperfective[/u][/b] ([sc]impfv[/sc]) pre...
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Hikoomayii Story (NOW WITH COMMENTARY!) (2017-05-27 19:18:30)
All verb roots in Hikóómayíi are inherently either [b][u]transitive[/u][/b] or [b][u]intransitive[/u][/b] (none are inherently ditransitive). Obviously, intransitive roots have one associated participant (S), while transitive roots have two (A and P). Many intransitive roots can be directly inflected for the person of S, without further modification:
(6) |[b]kpááni[/b]|[sub][sc]intr[/sc][/sub]-[b]si[/b]-oᴴkoᴴ > [b]kpáánisiko[/b]
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Hikoomayii Story (2017-05-16 12:33:07)
:11. An old man was sitting on a mat by the spring, and he greeted [Mosquito].
[b][i]Sa-š spáaw káxaθsóʔiw hníí míí-sohok sayihpánóóčííbonbááyóóθak-ʔóó θšópiyóosθak.[/i][/b]
[g then=[sc]novel[/sc]]sa=š[/g] [g [sc]dem:dist-obv[/sc]]spa-`:w[/g] [g old-man-[sc]obv[/sc]]ká-xaθsoᴴʔ-iw[/g] [g there]hníí[/g] [g [sc]adsv[/sc]=spring]míí=sohIᴴk[/g] [g mat-sit-[sc]applic-detr-loc.applic:an-3inan.real.impfv-rep=ss:seq[/sc]]sayihpaᴴn-óóčíí-bon-`b-(x)áá-yóó-θak=ʔóó[/g] [g [sc]inv[/sc]-greet-3s[sc]prox...
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Hikoomayii Story (2017-05-18 19:36:09)
:29. The next day, when he woke up he was very hungry.
[b][i]Sa sifáxamwáyóóšo-yíí hóóxííxíičsiyóo-drá hinyam pománóoyóokoθak.[/i][/b]
[g then]sa[/g] [g lift-[sc]mid:inan-become:inan-3inan.real.impfv-incept=ds:seq[/sc]]siᴴfaᴴxaᴴ-mθ-waᴴ-yóó-iᴴšoᴴ=yíí[/g] [g crack.open-eye-[sc]body.part.incorp-[/sc]3s[sc]prox.real.impfv-incept=ss:temp[/sc]]hóóxíí-xííč-siᴴ-`yóo=drá[/g] [g very]hinyam[/g] [g discomfort-[sc]by.mouth-feel[/sc]-3s[sc]prox.real.impfv-prog-rep[/sc]]poᴴk-maᴴ-nóó-`yóo-oᴴkoᴴ-θak[/g]...
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Hikoomayii Story (2017-05-16 12:24:19)
:7. Then in the distance he saw a patch of green grass, and trees.
[b][i]Sa ʔaxačθóóyóó-om hníí-š hom θiθíimakas θíimomóofníwos hi sxíyóonθak.[/i][/b]
[g then]sa[/g] [g distant-[sc]be:inan[/sc]-3[sc]inan.real.impfv=ds:loc[/sc]]ʔaᴴxač-θóó-yóó=om[/g] [g there=[sc]novel[/sc]]hníí=š[/g] [g [sc]pcpl[/sc]]hom[/g] [g [sc]rdp[/sc]+green-?-[sc]be:inan[/sc]]θiᴴ+θíim-íí-θóó[/g] [g green-[sc]rdp[/sc]+tree-[sc]inan.pl[/sc]=and]θíim-moᴴ+móofní-wos=hi[/g] [g see-3[sc]inan.real.pfv-rep[/sc]]sxí-yóóna-θak...
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Hikoomayii Story (2017-05-26 13:54:16)
:63. He ran back to the spring and found the old man, who was sitting on his mat again.
[b][i]Habóyóošmowóóθáayóos-ʔóó hníí sohok, spáaw kaʔóow šmonóoθyóóna-θáá, ski ʔo sayihpanóóčííbonyóokoθak.[/i][/b]
[g quickly-[sc]andat[/sc]-go-3s[sc]prox.real.pfv=ss:seq[/sc]]aᴴboᴴyóó-šmoᴴ-wóóθáá-`yóos=ʔóó [/g] [g there]hníí[/g] [g spring,]sohIᴴk,[/g] [g [sc]dem:dist-obv[/sc]]spa-`:w[/g] [g old.man-[sc]obv[/sc]]káʔahó-`:w[/g] [g [sc]andat[/sc]-find-[sc]3obv.real.pfv=ds:simult[/sc],]šmoᴴ-nóóθ-yóóna=θáá...
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Hikoomayii Story (2017-05-22 18:25:14)
:57. Mosquito didn’t know these fruits weren’t good to eat; that’s why the old man had said to wait for him to show him where the good food was.
[b][i]Háá Wíixšííʔasay ki košóonθočóoθak ʔiwí bááʔa čon pšáwošos skičaxinθóóyóó-om ʔiwí hočhófáásíí-ko hníí hanáčikičaxin káá ʔááxiθínóoθsóó-ok čas sóoθhoyóos.[/i][/b]
[g well]háá[/g] [g Mosquito]Wíixšííʔasay[/g] [g [sc]neg[/sc]]ki[/g] [g know-[sc]antps[/sc]-3s[sc]prox.real.impfv-rep[/sc]]koᴴšóón-θoᴴč-`yóo-θak[/g] [g [sc]compzr[/sc]]ʔiwí[/g] [g [...
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Hikoomayii Story (2017-05-21 18:10:33)
:52. Finally he came to an organ pipe cactus, with many big pitaya fruits on it; there were pitayas hanging off it, very many.
[b][i]Sa háaʔmi šmokómiyiyóoθak hníí-š bošíik ʔin bóóba, ʔoši bošíik ʔin míišáwomíwos hi; hníí haxá-ka θwixwíičóonyó-fin bošíišoyóonyóθak.[/i][/b]
[g then]sa[/g] [g after]háaʔmi[/g] [g [sc]andat[/sc]-come-3s[sc]prox.real.impfv-rep[/sc]]šmoᴴ-koᴴmiᴴyiᴴ-`yóo-θak[/g] [g there=[sc]novel[/sc]]hníí=š[/g] [g pitaya]bošíik[/g] [g [sc]attrib[/sc]]ʔin[/g] [g cactus,]bóóba,[/...
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Hikoomayii Story (2017-05-19 19:01:48)
:37. Mosquito said that he was too hungry.
[b][i]Háá, hoθočóošyoθak spa Wíixšííʔasay hinyam sáápománóó-ok.[/i][/b]
[g well]háá[/g] [g say-[sc]antps[/sc]-3s[sc]prox.real.pfv-mtn-rep[/sc]]ho-θoᴴč-`yóos-yoᴴ-θak[/g] [g [sc]dem:dist[/sc]]spa[/g] [g Mosquito]Wíixšííʔasay[/g] [g very]hinyam[/g] [g strong-discomfort-[sc]by.mouth-feel=ss:subord[/sc]]sáá-poᴴk-maᴴ-nóó=ok[/g]
38. “Tell me where the food is and I can get it, you can stay here,” he said.
[b][i]“Hóó kiθkíí ʔááxihosóósisa-om...
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