Reciprocals, reflexives etc
:With many verbs reciprocals can be simply expressed with reduplication in context, but often co-occur with the reciprocal pronoun [i]ŋǃèŋǃè[/i] (literally 'head-head'). Like other verbs formed with reduplication, all are imperfective.
(1) [i]Kahạ-ro ŋǃèŋǃè maŋ-maŋ-orą tsą[/i]
[tt]man-HON=that REC hit-REC-HON AN.IM[/tt]
Him and that man are hitting one another
Note that they force the subject into the plural when there is only the one subject:
owned by Yng, last edited 2018-10-17 13:43:06.
:[i]žop ŋǃè ru zò mte doo[/i]
[tt]whole world DAT language one stand[/tt]
In the whole world, there was one language.
[i]ninạ ya-mbạ dži ɢǂʰuɢǂʰu-x aŋŋo / dži šạnar q!ab ye-ç dʰędʰę-tʰa hoy / to-srob là này[/i]
[tt]3pl away-sun come sweat-SUB in / come shinar land be_in-SUB flatland-PL MOD / up-tent raise MOD[/tt]
And it came about that in their wandering from the east, they came to a stretch of flat country in the land of Shinar, and there they put their tents up.
owned by Yng, last edited 2018-10-17 13:07:47.
:Spoken Tsi has an impersonal perfective verb structure used to express non-volition, in which there is no grammatical subject and the 'logical subject' is expressed as an indirect object. The auxiliary used for this structure is [i]ži[/i], derived historically from [i]dži[/i] 'come'.
(1) [i]nạ'rro q!òyo ži[/i]
[tt]1sg=for get_hungry come[/tt]
I got hungry/I'm hungry
As is common in other contexts, [i]ro[/i] is often treated as a serial verb, allowing dropping of the pro...
owned by Yng, last edited 2018-10-14 12:57:44.
Indefinite and definite constituents
Tsi marks indefinite, specific constituents optionally with a preposed [i]mte[/i]~[i]mde[/i] (inanimate) or [i]mre[/i]~[i]mạr[/i] (animate). These typically appear in the postverbal space. Consider the following examples:
(1a) [i]nzu bà mte hạnzu[/i]
[tt]write IN.PRF INDF letter[/tt]
he wrote (will write) a (specific) letter
he wrote (will write) some (specific) letters
(1b) [i]nzu tsą mte hạnzu[/i]
[tt][tt]write AN.IMP INDF le...
owned by Yng, last edited 2018-10-14 12:37:45.
:As well as the converb construction mentioned above, which expresses 'closely bound' purpose and implies the same subject, Tsi also has two more general constructions for expressing purpose. The more standard one is the fairly conventional use of [i]içç[/i], with or without the postposition [i]ro[/i].
(1) [i]ka maŋ dzo ksù-x içç (ro)[/i]
[tt]man hit give shut_up-SUB NOM (for)[/tt]
I hit the man so he'd shut up
The second construction uses the more colloquial optative s...
owned by Yng, last edited 2018-10-14 12:36:20.
other random shit
The Tsi personal pronouns are as follows. Each form has a tonic and an atonic form.
[tt]ạnnạ -n ndạ -dạ
ạtta -t tạta -ta
ạnni -ni ninạ -na[/tt]
The atonic pronouns are fairly uncommon. One reason for this is that Tsi is typically fairly pro-drop, especially but by no means only for subjects. The other reason is that their use is somewhat limited by the same system of politeness and respect grammatically encoded with honorifics. I...
owned by Yng, last edited 2018-10-14 12:34:26.
The interrogative pronouns are as follows:
[i]yèn[/i] - 'what'
[i]son[/i] - 'who'
[i]fon[/i] - 'where'
[i]fondò[/i] - 'how'
[i]jòò[/i] - 'why'
Their syntax is wh-in-situ:
(1) [i]rlàŋŋạ to-srob là lʰo bà fon?[/i]
[tt]squadron up-tent raise be_around AN.IM where[/tt]
Where did the soldiers set up camp?
(2) [i]pʰò qa-mdòt k!a hąą bà jòò?[/i]
[tt]NEG apart=wood chop HNR take why?[/tt]
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:Tsi has three 'honorifics' originally derived from classifiers, as mentioned previously. These honorifics are syntactically versatile: they can attach to nouns and pronouns, stand alone as anaphora, and appear within the verbal complex.
In addition, the absence of any classifier (which we'll call 'unmarked') expresses (rarely) equality or lower social standing.
owned by Yng, last edited 2018-10-14 12:32:32.
Features of Tsat Tsi
:[b]The ~ideal Tsi vowel system~ vs Tsat[/b]
/i iː u uː/ <ị ịị ụ ụụ>
/ɪ ɪ̃ ɪː ɪ̃ː ʊ ʊ̃ ʊː ʊ̃ː/ <i į ii įį u ų uu ųų>
/e eː o oː/ <ẹ ẹẹ ọ ọọ>
/ə əː/ <ạ ạạ>
/ɛ ɛ̃ ɛː ɛ̃ː ɔ ɔ̃ ɔː ɔ̃ː/ <e ę ee ęę o ǫ oo ǫǫ>
/a aː ã ãː/ <a aa ą ąą>
Final long /aː/ merges with final long /ɛː/ and final long /ɪː/ with final long /i:/. On the other side of the vowel chart, final long /o: ɔː/ merge entirely to /u:/. Meanwhile, final nasal long vowel...
owned by Yng, last edited 2018-10-14 12:31:36.
Inscription and spoken Tsi
:Tsi exists in a state of relatively differentiated diglossia, although the differences between the scriptual-bureaucratic inscription Tsi and spoken Tsi are not so gapingly distant as to be mutually incomprehensible. Perhaps it is better to think of inscription Tsi as an unusually differentiated, archaising register of Tsi. It is important to note that the 'ideal' of inscription Tsi (which reflects to a greater or lesser extent the cherry-picked spoken Tsi of centuries past) is typically diluted...
owned by Yng, last edited 2018-10-14 12:31:00.
:There are three main types of conditional in Tsi.
This kind of conditional - perhaps the most common - can express both open and counterfactual conditionals. In Inscription Tsi the conditional clause is subordinated with the conjunction [i]ib[/i]:
(1a) [i]ka ŋáá ọχ ib pʰá ŋ|o aya-qǂòp[/i]
[tt]man teeth do.SUB if, right_hand finger off-cut[/tt]
if he bit the man, then (they will) cut off a finger from his right hand
if he bit the man, then cut...
owned by Yng, last edited 2018-10-14 12:30:29.
Tsi verbs and verbal morphology
:The Tsi verbal complex can be quite elaborate. It consists of, minimally, a main verb (i.e. a single lexical item), which can be simple (a verbal element alone) or complex (including directional prefixes and lexicalised nominal elements). The verb itself can carry certain inflections, and the complex as a whole can also include auxiliaries and serial verbs. The order of elements is approximately:
Directional prefix - incorporated objects - negative - nominal element - main verb - serial...
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Location and direction
:[b][u]Location and direction in Tsi[/u][/b]
Tsi has three 'true postpositions' whose meanings are quite broad and non-specific:
[i]Hųų [/i]- directional ‘to, up to, into, towards’.
(1) [i]Tsààd hųų[/i] - towards, into Tsat
[i]Aŋŋo [/i]- locative ‘at, in, inside, by’
(2) [i]Tsààd aŋŋo[/i] - in Tsat
[i]Ro[/i] - affective (benefactive/malefactive) or genitive.
(3) [i]Tsààd ro mà[/i] - the gate of Tsat
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:[b]Basic clause structure[/b]
The most typical order for a Tsi sentence is SOV or SVO. The postverbal position is commonly used to introduce new information (i.e. indefinite constituents), particularly constituents with a significant amount of discourse relevance (specificity):
(1) [i]Ya-dgo kto bà mte quuŋ-odʰę[/i]
[tt]round-mix start INAN INDF mud-PL[/tt]
So he started mixing some mud
The immediate preverbal position is used for generics and old/background i...
owned by Yng, last edited 2018-10-14 12:28:15.
These language textbooks don't dick you around. (2014-07-03 10:17:12)
:[b]Colloquial Syrian Arabic, Mary-Jane Liddicoat[/b] - goes slowly for the first half, then very fast for the second half and you get the impression there should've been more chapters. Also bizarrely uses some very, very colloquial Damascene lexemes, some of which are markedly 'folksy' even within Damascus and some of which might not be understood even by other Syrians. On the other hand, gives a comprehensive view of basic morphology and morphophonology and a very good base of useful vocabulary...
owned by Yng, last edited 2014-07-03 10:17:12.