PIE > PP
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Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Pannonian (PIE - 300 BC)



Extended Sievers' Law


Resonants develop an epenthetic vowel when following a cluster.
- *dʰǵʰmé- > *dʰǵʰ(m̥)mé-

Dkmtom Law


Word-initial coronal-dorsal clusters simplify to dorsals, with analogy throughout the paradigms.
- 'Earth' is reconstructed based on the accusative, as per Balto-Slavic: *dʰǵʰ(m̥)mé- > *ǵʰm̥mé-
- Dorsal-coronal clusters simplify to coronals: *kʷtwores *kʷtwōr  >  *twōres *twōr 'four'; by analogy, *kʷétesres > *kʷtésres > *tésres

Northern European declension law


Declensional *-bʰ- becomes -m-.

Syllabic resonant loss


R̥ R̥¹R¹ > əR
R̥H > [e a o]RH[e a o](+stress)
ə > e / H_ _H
ə > u / W_ _W
ə > u / K(')_m m_K(')
ə > a
- *ǵr̥h₂nóm > *ǵrəh₂nóm > *ǵreh₂nóm ( > *ǵrānám)
- *ǵʰm̥mé- > *ǵʰəmé- > *ǵʰumé-

Boukolos rule


Labiovelars delabialize adjacent to /u w/.

RUKI rule


s > š / [i y u w r K K']_
- -is > -iš

Eimi rule


s > z / V_C[+voice] C[+voice]_V
Vz > V:
z > ɾ

Laryngeal laws


Sanskrit laryngeal law


T > Tʰ / _H

Triple reflex


0 > e / (# C)H_(# C)

Standard coloring law


h₁e h₂e h₃e eh₁ eh₂ eh₃ > h₁e h₂a h₃o eh₁ ah₂ ah₃

Pannonian h1 reflex


h₁ > h / #_

Laryngeal merger


h₁ h₂ h₃ > H (let's say it's a glottal stop)

Vowel lengthening


VH > V:H

Glottal pitch accent


H > ˀ / V[+stress]_

N flapping


n > ~ɾ / V_V
n > ɾ / C[peripheral]_
H > 0

Tocharian affrication


d > dz

Pseudo-Phrygian shift


P B Bʰ > P P B

Thorn cluster rule


tK(') > š

Satemization


K' > K / _s
ḱ ǵ > č ǯ
s > 0 / č_ ǯ_

Nasal loss


m > ~ / _# _C[-lab]
m > ~w / V[+back]_V[+back]
n > ~ / _C[-plosive]C

TT rule


*-tt- > -ss-

Intervocalic glide loss


[pre]  ya ye yo wa we wo
a āi āi ēu āu ōi āu
e ēi ēi ēu ēu ēu ēu
o ōi ōi ēu āu ōi āu[/pre]
Circumflex pitch! eyé > aí, éye > âi

W loss


tw dw > tsw
yw > wy
Cw > CC / !#_

Not Kluge's law


rm > nn
N > R¹ / R¹_

First vowel merger


e[-stress][+nasal] > a
e[-stress] > a / _y
e[-stress] > i
ye wo > i u
o[-nasal] > a
o[+nasal] > u

Beginning of aspirate development


sP > Ph (overlaps with Roman period, so some loans with Latin sP get borrowed with Ph)

First vowel shift


i > e / r_ _r
é > yə
y > ʲ / C_
Ci > Cʲi
Kʲ > Ḱ > Č
Kʷʲ > K
tsʲ > ś
rʲ Čʲ > r Č

Proto-Pannonian to end of Roman period (300 BC - 500 AD)



Syncope


i u > 0 / VC_[-stress]CV
- also sometimes word-initially, esp if #VSC
- Latin ex- may be borrowed as ks- or s- in addition to iks-
- some exceptions for affricates
- [e] allophone of /i/ isn't affected by syncope

y > : / C[+pal]_

Nasal loss


VnʲF > ṼjF
VNF > ṼF

S loss


ns nts > ŋ ŋk
sr rs > š rš
sp st sč sk > ph th čh kh
s > x
x > 0 / _#
hʲ > sʲ

Other consonant changes


(t)sw > f
ts > s
ǯ > ž / !n_, but ǯǯ > ǯǯ
yy > ǯ
nm nʲmʲ > n nʲ
w > b / m_

The inventory at this point is:

/a ə i u ā ē ō ī ū ai au ei eu oi ou/
/p b pʲ bʲ t d tʲ dʲ ts č ǯ k g/ + aspirates
/s sʲ š x/
/m mʲ n nʲ/
/w wʲ l lʲ r/

Old Pannonian to Middle Pannonian (500 AD - 1500 AD)



R-cluster loss


pr br > pʰ gʷ
tr dr > ts z
kr gr > kʰ g
P[-voice]r P[+voice]r > Pʰ P[+voice]
Fr > F(:)
rr > gɭ
Pl Bl > kl gl

Iota metathesis


0 > i / a_C[peripheral]i(C)#
- *h₃égʷʰis 'snake' > agi > aigi
- *h₃égʷʰim > aigĩ

Labiopalatal loss


wʲ > y / #_
wʲ > wy

Short diphthong loss


ai au əi əu > ɛy ɔw ey ow / _V
ai au əi əu > ɛː ɔː eː oː

Umlaut


a ə > ɛ o / _$i(:)
a ə > ɔ o / _$u(:)
- *h₃égʷʰis > áigi > ɛ́ːgi
- *h₁nómn̥ > hĩramun > ĩrɔ́mun

A-laxing


a > ə / _m _n
- ĩrɔ́mun > ĩrɔ́mən

Other vowel changes


ɛ ɛ: > e e:i / _ŋ _g
ɛ ɛ: > a e:u / _Cʷ
a > ɔ / _ŋ _g _l m_ Cʷ_ _Cʷ
ə > u / Cʷ_ _Cʷ
- *h₃éngʷn̥ > áŋgʷan > ɔ́ŋgʷun 'butter'
- *stóygʰos > tʰáiga > tʰɛːga > tʰé:iga

Aspirate loss


Pʰ > F

Front rounded vowel development


yo yu~ > (y)ö
o u > ö / _Cʲ
u > ü / in closed syllables, except before velars
i e > ü ö / Cʷ_ _Cʷ
Cʷ > C

Long diphthong loss


Sharpening


i̯ u̯ > k kʷ / _s, or in syllables with falling tone

āi


āi > oi / in nonfinal open syllables
āi > ai

āu


āu > ɔu / in closed syllables before peripherals
āu > au

ēi


ē(i) > ei / in nonfinal open syllables
ēi > ī

ōi


ōi > oe > oa > owə / in open syllables except before Cʲ
ōi > ǖ

ēu


ēu > ɛu / in closed syllables after peripherals
ēu > eo > ea > ɛjə / in open syllables
ēu > eu

ōu


ōu > ū

Umlaut


ə...a > a...a

NP voicing


MP > MB / !_#

dj loss


dʲ > d / _$j
dʲ > j
- *dyḗws > *dʲēu > *dʲɛjə > *dɛjə
- *dyéwn̥s > *dʲáwəŋ > *jáwəŋ

Various changes


yə́ wə́ > e o
w > 0 / #C(C...)_V
j > g / _i _y

Long vowel shift


ū ō ɔ̄ > ǖ ū ō
ā > ɔ̄ in closed syllables

Syncope


Vowel loss word-finally (except -a) and in VC_CV (only within roots, mostly! - not inflections) and VC_t#.
If the preceding vowel is stressed, it takes low tone.
If the dropped vowel is stressed, the preceding vowel takes low tone.
VC_CV syncope takes priority over final syncope.
This doesn't apply to long vowels.
/j@ v@/ are treated as vowels, but instead of dropping, they become /i u/.

Stress shift


Long vowels syllabically adjacent to stressed short vowels absorb stress (high tone) onto the nearer mora.
If the stressed short vowel has low tone, the whole long vowel takes low tone.
Long high vowels become falling tone.
Long low vowels become rising tone.

Vowel suprasegmental loss and nonrhoticity


ē~ ō~ > jɛ̄ wɔ̄
V: > V
Vr > V: / _C
Vrə > V:
r > ɭ
y > 0 / ɭ_

Various changes


skt > st
schwa epenthesis to break up clusters

Middle Pannonian to Standard Pannonian (1500 AD -)



diphthongs in E and O raise to become long mid-high vowels

kt > kk (some other cluster reduction here - maybe Pt > PP)
VPR > VˀR - except /kl gl/ or word-initially (where schwa epenthesis applies - also FR)
palatalization of peripheral consonants is lost except before a vowel, where it becomes j
final -Ra > -@R after a consonant (via -@Ra)

word-initial unstressed vowels are lost, and resulting cross-word clusters are broken up by epenthetic schwa - between the consonants unless it's just a long consonant or an epenthetic NP cluster

#ŋ > #n
i y > ə / _C[postalv]
posttonic vowels are neutralized to a~ə i u; neutralized further to i u around palatals. however, after l` i stays e

V[falling] > Vˀ, P: > ˀP (new PP from loans?)
Py > TS'

a low-tone syllable preceded by an unstressed syllable shifts stress backwards, then all the tones merge.

unstressed pretonic schwa takes on the character of the following vowel if any
l > i / _C

word-final vowels are lost unless there's a big cluster. preceding stressed vowels are lengthened