Anthologica Universe Atlas / Universes / Lirar / Modern Punic / Sources


Collections, referred to with abbreviations:
AAL = Frajzyngier, Zygmund & Erin Shay, eds. (2012). The Afroasiatic Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge University Press.
ALSPA = Woodard, Roger D., ed. (2008). The Ancient Languages of Syria-Palestine and Arabia. Cambridge University Press.
EALL = Versteegh, Kees et al., eds. (2006). Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, 5 vols. Brill.
MAA = Kaye, Alan S., ed. (2007). Morphologies of Asia and Africa, 2 vols. Eisenbrauns.
PAA = Kaye, Alan S., ed. (1997). Phonologies of Asia and Africa, 2 vols. Eisenbrauns.
SLIH = Weninger, Stefan, Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck & Janet C. E. Watson, eds. (2011). The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook. Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikations-wissenschaft 36. De Gruyter Mouton.
TSL = Hetzron, Robert, ed. (1997). The Semitic Languages. Routledge.


Bennett, Patrick R. (1998). Comparative Semitic Linguistics: A Manual. Eisenbrauns.

Faber, Alice (1997). "Genetic Subgrouping of the Semitic Languages." In TSL, pp. 3-15.

Fox, Joshua (2003). Semitic Noun Patterns. Harvard Semitic Studies 52. Eisenbrauns.

Gragg, Gene & Robert Hoberman (2012). "Semitic." In AAL, pp. 145-235.

Gzella, Holger (2011). "Northwest Semitic in General." In SLIH, pp. 425-451.

Halayqa, Issam K. H. (2008). A Comparative Lexicon of Ugaritic and Canaanite. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 340. Ugarit-Verlag.

Hasselbach, Rebecca & John Huehnergard (2006). "Northwest Semitic Languages." In EALL, vol. 3, pp. 408-422

Huehnergard, John (2011). "Proto-Semitic Language and Culture" and "Semitic Roots Appendix" in The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 5th ed. Houghton Mifflin. Available online.
— (2008). "Afro-Asiatic." In ALSPA, pp. 225-246.
— & Aaron D. Rubin (2011). "Phyla and Waves: Models of Classification of the Semitic Languages." In SLIH, pp. 259-278.

Kaufman, Stephen A. & Joseph A. Fitzmeyer, eds. Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project. Hebrew Union College.

Kogan, Leonid (2005). "Observations on Proto-Semitic Vocalism." Aula Orientalis 23: 131-167.
— (2008). "On Proto-Semitic Deverbal Derivation." Aula Orientalis 26: 91-115.
— (2011a). "Proto-Semitic Phonetics and Phonology." In SLIH, pp. 54-151.
— (2011b). "Proto-Semitic Lexicon." In SLIH, pp. 179-258.
— (2015). Genealogical Classification of Semitic: The Lexical Isoglosses. De Gruyter.

Leslau, Wolf (1991). Comparative Dictionary of Geʿez (Classical Ethiopic). Otto Harrassowitz.

Naumkin, Vitaly et al. Semitic Etymological Database Online.

Weninger, Stefan (2011). "Reconstructive Morphology." In SLIH, pp. 151-178.


Amadasi Guzzo, Maria Giulia (1999). "Plural Feminine Personal Suffix Pronouns in Phoenician." In Eretz-Israel 26: Frank Moore Cross Volume (eds. Baruch A. Levine et al.), pp. 46-51.
— (2012). "Phoenician and Punic in Sicily." In Language and Linguistic Contact in Ancient Sicily (ed. Olga Tribulato), Cambridge Classical Studies, pp. 115-131.

Fox, Joshua (1996). "A Sequence of Vowel Shifts in Phoenician and Other Languages." JNES 55: 37-47.

Garr, W. Randall (2004). Dialect Geography of Syria-Palestine, 1000-586 b.c.e. Eisenbrauns.

Häberl, Charles G. (n.d.). "A Question of Orthography: The Latino-Punic Inscriptions." Available online.

Hacket, Jo Ann (2008). "Phoenician and Punic." In ALSPA pp. 82-102.

Huehnergard, John (1991). "The Development of the Third Person Suffixes in Phoenician." Maarav 7: 183-194. Available online.

Hoftijzer, J. & K. Jongeling (1995). Dictionary of North-West Semitic Inscriptions, 2 vols. Handbook of Oriental Studies. Brill.

Kerr, Robert M. (2013). "Phoenician-Punic: The View Backward—Phonology versus Paleography." In Linguistic Studies in Phoenician in Memory of J. Brian Peckham (Robert D. Holmstedt & Aaron Schade, eds.). Eisenbrauns. Available online.

Krahmalkov, Charles R. (2000). Phoenician-Punic Dictionary. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 90. Peeters.
— (2001). A Phoenician-Punic Grammar. Handbook of Oriental Studies 54. Brill.
Both of Krahmalkov's books contain a number of idiosyncratic views not indicated as such, as well as only limited reference to other sources, and should be used with caution.

Pat-El, Na'ama (2013). "On Negation in Phoenician." In Linguistic Studies in Phoenician in Memory of J. Brian Peckham (Robert D. Holmstedt & Aaron Schade, eds.). Eisenbrauns. Available online.

Pat-El, Na'ama & Austin Aren Wilson-Wright (2016). "The Features of Canaanite: A Reevaluation." Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 166: 41-55. Available online.

Plautus's Poenulus, Act 5. Available online here, and in translation here.

Röllig, Wolfgang (2011). "Phoenician and Punic." In SLIH, pp. 472-479.

Segert, Stanislav (1997a). "Phoenician and the Eastern Canaanite Languages." In TSL, pp. 174-186.
— (1997b). "Phoenician and Punic Phonology." In PAA, vol. 1, pp. 55-64.
— (2007). "Phoenician and Punic Morphology." In MAA, vol. 1, pp. 75-84.

Tomback, Richard S. (1978). A Comparative Semitic Lexicon of The Phoenician and Punic Languages. Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series 32. Missoula, MT: Scholars Press.

Watson, Wilfred G. E. (2013). "Loanwords in Phoenician and Punic." In Ritual, Religion and Reason: Studies in the Ancient World in Honour of Paolo Xella (eds. Oswald Loretz et al.), pp. 327-346. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 404. Ugarit-Verlag.


Blau, Joshua (2010). Phonology and Morphology of Biblical Hebrew: An Introduction. Linguistic Studies in Ancient West Semitic. Eisenbrauns.

Cook, John A. & Robert D. Holmstedt (1999). Biblical Hebrew: A Student Grammar. Draft copy. Available online.

Hendel, Ronald (rev. of handouts by Thomas O. Lambdin & John Huehnergard) (2010). "Historical Linguistics of Biblical Hebrew: An Outline." Course handout, University of California, Berkeley. Available online.

Lutz, Edzard (2011). "Biblical Hebrew." In SLIH, pp. 480-514.

Joüon, Paul — trans. and rvd. Muraoka, T. (1993). A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, 2 vols. Subsidia Biblica 14/I. Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico. Reprint of 1st ed. with corrections.

Khan, Geoffrey (1997). "Tiberian Hebrew Phonology." In PAA, vol. 1, pp. 85-102.

McCarter Jr., P. Kyle (2008). "Hebrew." In ALSPA, pp. 36-81.

Rendsburg, Gary A. (1997). "Ancient Hebrew Phonology." In PAA, vol. 1, pp. 65-84.
— (2007). "Ancient Hebrew Morphology." In MAA, vol. 1, pp. 85-106.

van der Merwe, Christo, Jackie A. Naudé & Jan H. Kroeze (1999). A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar. Sheffield Academic Press.

Waltke, Bruce K. & M. O'Connor (1990). An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Eisenbrauns.


El Kirat El Allame, Yamina (2006). "Language Shift: Amazigh." In EALL, vol. 2, pp. 707-716.

Gabsi, Zouhir (2003). An Outline of the Shilha (Berber) Vernacular of Douiret (Southern Tunisia). PhD dissertation, University of Western Sydney. Available online.

Haddadou, Mohand Akli (2006-7). Dictionnaire des Racines Berberes Communes. Haut Commissariat à l'Amazighité.

Heath, Jeffrey (2005). A Grammar of Tamashek (Tuareg of Mali). Mouton Grammar Library 35. Mouton de Gruyter.

Kossmann, Maarten (2007). "Berber Morphology." In MAA, vol. 1, pp. 429-446.
— (2012). "Berber." In AAL, pp. 18-101.
— (2013). The Arabic Influence on Northern Berber. Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics 67. Brill.
— & Harry J. Stroomer (1997). "Berber Phonology." In PAA, vol. 1, pp. 461-476.

Múrcia, Carles et al. (2018). Diccionari Català-Amazic.

Oussous, Mohamed (n.d.). Lexique Animal (Français-Amazigh-Arabe). Tawalt Cultural Foundation.

van Putten, Marijn (2013). A Grammar of Awjila Berber (Libya): Based on Umberto Paradisi's Material. PhD dissertation, Leiden University. Available online.


Baccouche, Taïeb (2006). "Tunisia." In EALL, vol. 4, pp. 571-577.

Caubet, Dominique (2006a). "Labiovelarization." In EALL, vol. 2, pp. 621-623.
— (2006b). "Moroccan Arabic." In EALL, vol. 3, pp. 273-287.

Gacek, Adam (2006). "Maġribī." In EALL, vol. 3, pp. 110-113.

Gibson, Maik (2006). "Tunis Arabic." In EALL, vol. 4, pp. 563-571.

Heath, Jeffrey (1997). "Moroccan Arabic Phonology." In PAA, vol. 1, pp. 205-218.
— (2007). "Moroccan Arabic Morphology." In MAA, vol. 1, pp. 249-256.

Lutz, Edzard (2006). "Qāf." In EALL, vol. 4, pp. 1-3.

Pereira, Christophe (2006a). "Libya." In EALL, vol. 3, pp. 52-58.
— (2006b). "Tripoli Arabic." In EALL, vol. 4, pp. 548-556.



Adams, J. N. (2003). Bilingualism and the Latin Language. Cambridge University Press.
— (2007). The Regional Diversification of Latin 200 BC—AD 600. Cambridge University Press.

Shahîd, Irfan (2006). "Latin Loanwords." In EALL, vol. 3, pp. 6-8.


Černý, J. (1976). Coptic Etymological Dictionary. Cambridge University Press.