Reciprocals, reflexives etc
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Reciprocals, reflexives etc
With many verbs reciprocals can be simply expressed with reduplication in context, but often co-occur with the reciprocal pronoun ŋǃèŋǃè (literally 'head-head'). Like other verbs formed with reduplication, all are imperfective.

(1) Kahạ-ro ŋǃèŋǃè maŋ-maŋ-orą tsą
man-HON=that REC hit-REC-HON AN.IM
Him and that man are hitting one another

Note that they force the subject into the plural when there is only the one subject:

(2) Kahạ-rą-ro ŋǃèŋǃè maŋ-maŋ-orą tsą
man-HON-PL=that REC hit-REC-HON AN.IM
Those men are hitting one another!

Reflexives are formed similarly with a single iŋǃè, etymologically a possessed form of 'head':

(3) Kahạ-ro iŋǃè maŋ-orą tsą
man-HON-that REF hit-HON AN.IN
That man hit himself