Modern Tzuman 2
Nominal Morphology: Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, and Numbers
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Nominal Morphology



Nouns



Tzuman has four cases, Nominative, Dative, Accusative, and Genitive. Each case has a number of functions:
NominativeThe subject case
DativeIndirect Object; object of movement inside prepositions
AccusativeDirect Object; object of movement outside prepositions
Genitivemarks posession of an object; object of locational prepositions


It can be helpful to The 'basic' forms of the cases in Ancient and Modern Tzuman are as follows:
Ancient TzumanModern Tzuman
N-∅-∅
D-u-o, -u, -*
A-ax-ah
G-utu-Vs

*many Dative forms are consonant alternations, or are otherwise alterations of final vowels by their contact with the Ancient Tzuman -u.

Many forms do not follow these basics exactly, due to their generalized nature as well as various phonological and occasionally stylistic reasons.


The difference between the I and II classes is in origin an animate/inanimate distinction; all native words adhere to it, and most older loans have been assimilated into the pattern, but recent loans have muddied the waters somewhat, with forms more likely to be classified by similarity in form to existing words and word-final phones.

émaht 'trader' animate, éznis 'temple' inanimate
I  consonant stems    II short V-stems
ISPlII SPl
Némahtmóhtešézniséznoš
Démahmóhtešviznésoéznošv
Amóhtahmahtášahéznis (iznésah)iznúšah
Gmóhtosmahtášosiznésasiznúšas

Ia  further cons stems      IIa  ?e-stems
IaSPlIIa SPl
Nóreharághoš/reghúvešyeyeš/yávoš
Dórekarághošv/reghúvešvyevyešv/yávošv
Aarághohareghúšah/reghovášahye (yávah)yášah/yevúšah
Garághosareghúšos/reghovášosyávasyášas/yevúšas

Type C: o-stems        IIb i-stems
CSPlIIb SPl
Nimóhtomahtúvoševášivišéyoš
Dimóhtumahtúvošvevášuyvišéyošv
Aimóhto/mahtúvahmahtovúšahvešéyahvišéyoš/višúšah
Gimóhtusmahtovúšasvešéyasvišúšas


The Animate (I) dative and genitive singulars are frequently anomalous in consonant stems; this is due to the frequent mutation of consonants before u in Old Tzuman prior to its word-final loss (see the Sandhi section for further details).

The inanimate singular accusative, historically, was identical with the nominative, but within the last 150 years a rebuilt form from the oblique stem with the animate accusative -ah arose in popular usage. This has not penetrated into higher registers, though it would be readily understood (stem variation being such a common feature in the language) and then roundly disapproved of. Curiously enough, the inanimate plural accusative has always declined with the ending -ah (and its antecedents).

Adjectives


Tzuman adjectives are closely related to nouns, endings being borrowed back and forth frequently. They have three general forms: short, long-v and long-y. The short declension, which is broadly identical to the nominal declensions, is used when the head noun also has a pronominal qualifier (demonstratives generally), while the long declensions are when the noun stands alone with its adjective; the v- and y- forms are for adjectives ending in back and front vowels in their stem respectively.

Short Endings


The short adjective endings are mostly unremarkable, with the exception of the Genitive plural, which show one of the few instances of final syllable stress in the language.
SgPl
aninananinan
Nˊ-Øˊ-Øˊ-ešˊ-oš
Dˊ-*ˊ-oˊ-ešvˊ-oš
Aˊ-ahˊ-Ø-ášah-úšah
Gˊ-osˊ-as-ášt-ášt


*The short animate dative singular is marked by a consonant mutation caused by Old Tzuman -u, and/or by -v: iránik 'wild' dative singular animate iránikv.

Long v


SgPl
aninananinan
Nˊ-iv-óvi-íĕš-ívoš
Dˊ-viˊ-o(v)-ívēˊ-ovo
A-váyah-aváyah-ášah-úšah
G-ívĕs-óvĕs-ášt-ášt


long y


SgPl
aninananinan
Nˊ-iˊ-a-éyi-úiš
Dˊ-eyˊ-o*-yávo-yúvo
A-áyahˊ-a-éyah-úišah
G-éyos-óyas-éyšt-úišt


*borrowed from the inanimate nominal. Išeni maintains a form in -ai < *-aju.

As stated above, the long and short forms of Tzuman adjectives partially carry a meaning difference; long (or 'strong') forms occur without a demonstrative or other pronoun, while the short (or 'weak') forms are used when such a pronoun is present:
Eljéna tzéner '(a) black ship' eljinúišah tzinerúšah 'black ships(acc)' but lufsa áljin tzéner 'this black ship' lufsah eljinúšah tzinerúšah 'these black ships(acc)'.

Comparatives and Superlatives


Comparatives ('more, -er') are usually analytic in Tzuman, using the preposed word húzuk (frequently unstressed as hozuk) 'more':
húzuk eljéna 'blacker, more black' (urban) yey hozuk áljin tzéner 'the blacker ship'
Unlike the comparatives, superlatives in Tzuman are synthetic. They are constructed with two lexically-assigned infixes, -mi-, and -ek-:
Eljináka tzéner 'blackest ship', yeytzas eljináko tzénero 'of that, the blackest ship'
The difference between short and long endings is maintained in the superlative:
<TBA>
Some adjectives have suppletive forms for the comparative and superlative. The suppletive comparative forms do not generally take húzuk, though such a usage is common in Teśara-influenced Tzuman and rustic Itece dialects.

Pronouns



SgPl
1uymuy
2ǧitzay
3ĕhnkuma

The personal pronouns are the only section of the language which inherited a non-suffixal plural system from Proto-Southern, where it was totally suppletive.

1SgPl2SP3SP
NuymuyNǧitzayNĕhnkuma
DvúyomuyoDǧéyotzayoDĕhnokumo
AvúyahmuyúvahAǧéyahtzóyahAĕhnahkumah
GvúyosmuyúvosGǧéyostzóyosGĕhnoskuma(s/št)


Demonstratives


The basic forms of the demonstratives do not inflect for number, but the long forms do.
proximalmedialdistal
lufsyeytzňondeš
aninananinananinan
Nlufslufsayeytzyeytzaňondešňondoš
Dlufšlufšvyeyzvyeytzoňondešvňondošo
Alufsahlufsayeytzahyeytzaňondešahňondoš
Glufšoslufšasyeyzvosyeytzasňondeskvosňondošas


Y- and v- forms (based on the pre-stress stem vowel, y- for yeytz and v- for lufs and ňondeš, which incidentally drops the anomalous plural morph -eš) of the demonstratives exist, denoting 'this one, that one, yon one'. They are of a more recent origin than the short forms, being transparently derived from the demonstrative stems with the Tzuman reflexes of the PMK forms -ye- and -- suffixed. They inflect for singular and plural, unlike the short form demonstratives:
SgPl
aninananinan
Nlúfsivlofsóvilofsíĕslofsívoš
Dlúfšvilúfsolofsívēlofsúvo
Alofsáyahlofsóvahlúfšvahlofšvúšah
Glofšívĕslofsóvĕslofšvĕštlofšvúšt

SgPl
aninananinan
Nyáitziyáitzayeytzéyiyeytzúiš
Dyáitzeyyáitzoyeytzášvoyeytzúšvo
Ayeytzáyahyáitzayeytzéyahyeytzúišah
Gyeytzéyosyeytzóyasyeytzéyos/yeytzéyoštyeytzúyas/yeytzúyašt

SgPl
aninananinan
Nňúndivňondóviňondívĕšňondívoš
Dňúndzviňondo(v)ňondívēňondúvo
Aňonzváyahňondaváyahňonzvέšahňonzvúšah
Gňondívĕsňonzvóvĕsňúnzvĕštňonzvošt



A note should be given here. City dialects (those of Istáril, Tzešághro and other Itece cities, Cenaša & its environs, the lowland cities of Ḫenǰan Island, and the island port of Kemaš (which has nearly equal the population of Istáril)) have taken to using a truncated form of yeytz as a definite article, and using yáitzi as the distal demonstrative. This article declines thusly (regional variations have been levelled for the purposes of this description):
SgPl
aninananinan
Nyeyyeyayešyevoš
Dyevyeyoyeskvyevo
Ayáiyahyahyášahyúšah
Gyáiyosyéyasyeštyošt



Relatives & Interrogatives


NDAG
whorošrošvrošahrošos
whichrašrašvrašrašas
whatrólašrólašvralóšahralóšas
whereranĕš
whenrovašrovóšos
whyášuyešíyo
howváš
thusšann
somehos-/hoz-



Numbers


Numbers in Tzuman work under a somewhat different stress system from the rest of the language; final stress has become the general rule, though some, longer, forms take the normal rule. Older forms of the numbers take the normal stress pattern; the change occurred roughly 150YBP, based on newspaper records, which since their origins 200 YBP have recorded dates in alphabetic script, and thus show vowel changes from stress. Reductions are far more commonplace than in the majority of the language (where they are by no means rare).
0123456789101112131415
enalňóstzolšomgešvkutzyejum/ijumceacunǧérsaášotsoyňósoytzolúvoyšúmoygešívoyktzéi

notices