Modern Punic Dictionary
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Word of the Day: γɔḷ
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Verb roots, which normally consist of two to three consonants and usually a thematic vowel between C2 and C3, are listed with capitalized consonants and lower-case vowel(s). Roots are not specified for stem/conjugation class; each individual stem and meaning is given a separate dictionary entry (except for verbs which only have one stem class, in which case the verb is listed under its inflected form and its root is not listed separately). Inflected verbs are cited in their 3rd person masculine singular conjugation, in the Imperfect and Present tenses respectively, separated by hyphens. For example, the verb root meaning "pick up, pluck out," which has a theme vowel of -ă-/-o- in the Imperfect, is listed as QḌoF, while its G-Stem (meaning specifically "pick up") is listed under qḍof - iqḍəf.

Information given in the "Attestation" line is historically accurate to the best of my knowledge, and contains the spelling of the word in transliterated Phoenician script, as well as, when applicable, the word written in Latin or Greek characters between <angled brackets>. The Attestation line also gives a reconstructed form for the word at the latest period of attested Punic. This sometimes results in reconstructions that don't closely resemble the actual attested form. For example, the word for "gold" is attested in both Phoenician and Punic writings as 𐤇𐤓𐤑 ḥrṣ, is paralleled by Hebrew ḥārūṣ, descends from Proto-Semitic *xarūṣ-, and was loaned into early Greek as χρῦσός (Mycenaean <ku-ru-so>). At the time it was loaned into Greek, the initial pharyngeal fricative was clearly still pronounced (*ḥarūṭṣ); however, later Punic is known to have lost all pharyngeals/glottals, and so the reconstructed Punic form given in the dictionary entry is "*ăruṭṣ." (Attestations in Latin/Greek characters and Late Punic reconstructions are omitted from verb entries.)

For the developments leading from various levels of proto-language to attested Phoenician-Punic, and from Phoenician-Punic to Modern Punic, see the Diachronics article. Proto-Semitic and other protoforms are transcribed in traditional Semiticist notation, rather than IPA or similar notation. Thus, <*š> represents */s/, and other "fricative" symbols represent afficates: <*ṯ, *ḏ, *ṯ̣> = */tθ, dð, tθ’/, <*s, *z, *ṣ> = */ts, dz, ts’/, <*ś, *ṣ́> = */tɬ, tɬ’/. As seen, "emphatics" (probably ejectives) are represented with underdots, including <*ḳ, *ṭ> = */k’, t’/; however, <*ḥ> represents */ħ/. */j/ is spelled <*y> and long vowels are spelled with a macron. Other symbols match their IPA usage.

In the dictionary, a number of reconstructed forms are ascribed to "Proto-Ugarito-Canaanite," but this should not be taken to imply the existence of a separate proto-language that led just to Ugaritic and the Canaanite languages but not to Aramaic; rather, it simply marks words that are only attested in Ugaritic and Canaanite (there are quite a few such words). If there was indeed no intermediate Proto-Ugarito-Canaanite language, such forms can be read as "either a Proto-Northwest Semitic term that was lost in Aramaic, or a term that was innovated in either Canaanite or Ugaritic after they separated and spread to the sister language through diffusion."

Finally, for all entries in which the term has a known Biblical or Rabbinical Hebrew cognate, this has been provided. The Hebrew is transcribed fairly traditionally, based on the Masoretic tradition, and probably represents the pronunciation in the early post-exilic period fairly well, with a few exceptions. (Note that the postvocalic fricative variants of /p t k b d g/ are not indicated.)

Ar. = Arabic
Ber. = Berber
Gk. = Greek
Heb. = Hebrew
Lat. = Latin
LbAr. = Libyan Arabic
MghAr. = Maghrebi Arabic
TnAr. = Tunisian Arabic
Ug. = Ugaritic

√BDoØ, root. invent/conclude/plan
√BDvL, root. separate
√BLeØ, root. worn/faded
√BLoL, root. mingle
√BLoØ, root. eat
√BNoØ, root. do
√BQvṚ, root. examine
√BRoØ, root. create
√BṚoQ, root. shine/gleam
√BRoX, root. bless
√BSeL, root. boil
√BʷoB, root. be with; assist
√BʷoN, root. perceive
√BʷoR, root. guest/friend
√BʷoZ, root. pierce; intersect
√BYoL, root. take possession
√BYoS, root. stink/putrid
√BϴoR, root. divide
√ḌBeQ, root. same place/together
√DBvR, root. speak
√DLeØ, root. contain/have
√DMoM, root. silent
√DMoØ, root. resemble
√DoN, root. judge
√GBeØ, root. high; tall
√GDeL, root. expansive
√GDvM, root. chop off
√GLoØ, root. profane; pollute; exile
√GMoR, root. end
√GNvB, root. deceive
√GNvN, root. cover; poultice
√GRoS, root. drive away
√GZoR, root. destroy
√GZoZ, root. shear
ïBoD, root. perish
ïBoL, root. labor
ïBoS, root. tie on
ïDeR, root. big
√ØḌoB, root. gather firewood
ïDoL, root. stop
ïDvS, root. new
ïGoR, root. test; hire
√ØƔeF, root. rude
ïKeM, root. wise
ïKoL, root. nibble/sip
ïLeS, root. sad
ïLoM, root. dream
ïLoM (2), root. insult
√ØḶoQ, root. contribute
ïLvF, root. replace

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