Modern Punic Dictionary
Anthologica Universe Atlas / Universes / Lirar / Modern Punic / Modern Punic Dictionary

Word of the Day: rɛm
nm. womb
Verb roots, which normally consist of two to three consonants and usually a thematic vowel between C2 and C3, are listed with capitalized consonants and lower-case vowel(s). Roots are not specified for stem/conjugation class; each individual stem and meaning is given a separate dictionary entry (except for verbs which only have one stem class, in which case the verb is listed under its inflected form and its root is not listed separately). Inflected verbs are cited in their 3rd person masculine singular conjugation, in the Imperfect and Present tenses respectively, separated by hyphens. For example, the verb root meaning "pick up, pluck out," which has a theme vowel of -ă-/-o- in the Imperfect, is listed as QḌoF, while its G-Stem (meaning specifically "pick up") is listed under qḍof - iqḍəf.

Information given in the "Attestation" line is historically accurate to the best of my knowledge, and contains the spelling of the word in transliterated Phoenician script, as well as, when applicable, the word written in Latin or Greek characters between <angled brackets>. The Attestation line also gives a reconstructed form for the word at the latest period of attested Punic. This sometimes results in reconstructions that don't closely resemble the actual attested form. For example, the word for "gold" is attested in both Phoenician and Punic writings as 𐤇𐤓𐤑 ḥrṣ, is paralleled by Hebrew ḥārūṣ, descends from Proto-Semitic *xarūṣ-, and was loaned into early Greek as χρῦσός (Mycenaean <ku-ru-so>). At the time it was loaned into Greek, the initial pharyngeal fricative was clearly still pronounced (*ḥarūṭṣ); however, later Punic is known to have lost all pharyngeals/glottals, and so the reconstructed Punic form given in the dictionary entry is "*ăruṭṣ." (Attestations in Latin/Greek characters and Late Punic reconstructions are omitted from verb entries.)

For the developments leading from various levels of proto-language to attested Phoenician-Punic, and from Phoenician-Punic to Modern Punic, see the Diachronics article. Proto-Semitic and other protoforms are transcribed in traditional Semiticist notation, rather than IPA or similar notation. Thus, <*š> represents */s/, and other "fricative" symbols represent afficates: <*ṯ, *ḏ, *ṯ̣> = */tθ, dð, tθ’/, <*s, *z, *ṣ> = */ts, dz, ts’/, <*ś, *ṣ́> = */tɬ, tɬ’/. As seen, "emphatics" (probably ejectives) are represented with underdots, including <*ḳ, *ṭ> = */k’, t’/; however, <*ḥ> represents */ħ/. */j/ is spelled <*y> and long vowels are spelled with a macron. Other symbols match their IPA usage.

In the dictionary, a number of reconstructed forms are ascribed to "Proto-Ugarito-Canaanite," but this should not be taken to imply the existence of a separate proto-language that led just to Ugaritic and the Canaanite languages but not to Aramaic; rather, it simply marks words that are only attested in Ugaritic and Canaanite (there are quite a few such words). If there was indeed no intermediate Proto-Ugarito-Canaanite language, such forms can be read as "either a Proto-Northwest Semitic term that was lost in Aramaic, or a term that was innovated in either Canaanite or Ugaritic after they separated and spread to the sister language through diffusion."

Finally, for all entries in which the term has a known Biblical or Rabbinical Hebrew cognate, this has been provided. The Hebrew is transcribed fairly traditionally, based on the Masoretic tradition, and probably represents the pronunciation in the early post-exilic period fairly well, with a few exceptions. (Note that the postvocalic fricative variants of /p t k b d g/ are not indicated.)

Ar. = Arabic
Ber. = Berber
Gk. = Greek
Heb. = Hebrew
Lat. = Latin
LbAr. = Libyan Arabic
MghAr. = Maghrebi Arabic
TnAr. = Tunisian Arabic
Ug. = Ugaritic

Qɔḍḍ, name. City, Town, -ville (in place names)
adum, adj. red
afoar, nm. body hair
aleθ, prep. on top of; right above
alloθ, nf. foreskin
am, nm. husband's father; grandfather
amduθ, nm. beauty, loveliness, hotness
ammieγ, adj. frozen, congealed; ice cream
annăfθ, nf. hare
aqʷəb, nm. foot (body part)
aqṛob, nm. scorpion
ar, nm. mound, heap, pile
arbe, nm. locust
arboa, numm. four (M)
attud, nm. billy goat
az, conj. and then, then, next, and
ažγaroθ, nf. plain, flat land
ăb, nm. father
ăf, nm. face
ăkkăb, nm. spider
ămm - imʷəmʷ, vG. be hot
ămmoθ, nf. foot (unit of measure)
ărəs, nm. request, petition; order (as of a product)
ăttier, adj. big, large, great; strong, mighty, powerful
ăttoar, adj. empowering
ăttsoθ, numf. five (F)
ăvd, nm. slave
ăš, conj. but, however
ăžžo, nf. red deer (Cervus elaphus)
ăγboar, nm. mouse
ăγeaṛ, nm. plant
ăθă, pn. you, yourself (2sg masc pronoun)
ăθi, pn. you, yourself (2sg fem pronoun)
aγie, nm. half
aṛwe, nm. lion
aṛγɔḷ, nm. storm cloud
b-, ppf. PREP (in, on, while, consisting of, etc)
baddzɔl, nm. iron
baləs, pn. no one
bbṛoẓ, nf. window
bdo - ibḍə, vG. invent, come up with; decide, settle on, come to the conclusion; plan
bdoθ, nf. piece, portion, part; section; slice
beaγɔẓ, nf. egg
beqqeṛ - ibqqeṛ, vD. examine, take a close look at, inspect
beqqeẓ - ibqqeẓ, vD. intend to, try to
berrex - ibrrex, vD. bless
bettsel - ibttsel, vD. boil (tr)
beθ, nm. house; building
beθθer - ibθθer, vD. cut up all of them, divide all of them
beṛṛeq - ibṛṛeq, vD. shine a light on, light up, illuminate
bi, part. hopefully, ideally, I hope that; let's, come on
bier, nf. well
bin, prep. between
bixoθ, nf. kestrel
bko - ibkʷə, vG. scream, wail, bawl
bla, nm. salt
ble, adj. worn, faded
ble - ibḷə, vG. be worn, faded; wear out, fade
blo - ibḷə, vG. eat
blol - ibḷəḷ, vG. confuse; mingle, mix
blu, nm. fodder, provender
bmʷea, prep. in the heart of, deep inside
bno - ibṇə, vG. do, act, make
bnoθ, nf. action, deed
bod, nm. invention; conclusion; plan
bod (2), nm. wing of a building
bro - ibṛə, vG. create, make, fashion
brod, nm. ice
brux, adj. happy, blessed, lucky, fortunate (mostly used as a proper name)
brɔθ, numf. four (F)
brəxoθ, nf. blessing
bsel, adj. boiled
bsel - ibẓɔḷ, vG. boil (intr)
bu-, part. cislocative verbal prefix
báqɔḷ, nm. mule
báḍăṇ, nm. belly, stomach
bɔl, adv. no, not, NEG
bɔ́ṛəq, nm. lightning
bəžžol - ippəžžɔl, vG. take possession of, inherit
bəžžos - ippəžžəs, vG. stink, be putrid, smell bad
bə́rəx, nm. knee
bəθ, nf. daughter
bɛneyəs, adj. bold(ly), careless(ly), reckless(ly)
bɛs, nm. stink (n), stench, bad smell
bʷear, nm. guest; friend
bʷerrer - ibʷrrer, vD. be friends with, befriend
bʷoddz - ibʷuddz, vG. pierce, stab; intersect with
bʷonn - ibʷunn, vG. understand, discern, perceive
bʷopp - ibʷupp, vG. be with; assist with, provide assistance, help out; work with SO (both figurative and literally—at a job together)
bʷorr - ibʷurr, vG. be a guest
bʷuroθ, nf. payment; agreement, contract, pact; terms of an agreement
bʷuzoθ, nf. kid, child, tyke
bʷuγ, nm. mussel
bʷəb, nm. hole
bʷəbboθ, nf. cheese
bʷəd, prep. through, by, by means of, from, of, out of
bʷə́wa, nm. height; level; amount, number
bʷə́ṛəṇ, nm. flat surface
bʷəḍḷ, nm. size, magnitude; greatness
bʷəḍḷuθ, nf. greatness, glory, splendor

Next Page
836 entries.

Dictionary Search

( )