Modern Punic Dictionary
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Page: (√) (á) (d) (ə) (i) (m) (n) (r) (t) (x) (γ)

Word of the Day: yăθum
nm. orphan
Verb roots, which normally consist of two to three consonants and usually a thematic vowel between C2 and C3, are listed with capitalized consonants and lower-case vowel(s). Roots are not specified for Stem/conjugation class; each individual Stem and meaning is given a separate dictionary entry (except for verbs which only have one Stem class, in which case the verb is listed under its inflected form and its Root is not listed separately). Inflected verbs are cited in their 3rd person masculine singular conjugation, in the Present, Imperfect, and Past Perfective tenses respectively, separated by hyphens. For example, the verb root meaning "pick up, pluck out," which has a theme vowel of -ă-/-o- in the Imperfect, is listed as QḌoF, while its G-Stem (meaning specifically "pick up") is listed under iqḍəf - qḍof - qʷuḍefim.

Information given in the "Attestation" line is historically accurate to the best of my knowledge, and contains the spelling of the word in transliterated Phoenician script, as well as, when applicable, the word written in Latin or Greek characters between <angled brackets>. The Attestation line also gives a reconstructed form for the word at the latest period of attested Punic. This sometimes results in reconstructions that don't closely resemble the actual attested form. For example, the word for "gold" is attested in both Phoenician and Punic writings as 𐤇𐤓𐤑 ḥrṣ, is paralleled by Hebrew ḥārūṣ, descends from Proto-Semitic *xarūṣ-, and was loaned into early Greek as χρῦσός (Mycenaean <ku-ru-so>). At the time it was loaned into Greek, the initial pharyngeal fricative was clearly still pronounced (*ḥarūṭṣ); however, later Punic is known to have lost all pharyngeals/glottals, and so the reconstructed Punic form given in the dictionary entry is "*ăruṭṣ." (Attestations in Latin/Greek characters and Late Punic reconstructions are omitted from verb entries.)

For the developments leading from various levels of proto-language to attested Phoenician-Punic, and from Phoenician-Punic to Modern Punic, see the Diachronics article. Proto-Semitic and other protoforms are transcribed in traditional Semiticist notation, rather than IPA or similar notation. Thus, <*š> represents */s/, and other "fricative" symbols represent afficates: <*ṯ, *ḏ, *ṯ̣> = */tθ, dð, tθ’/, <*s, *z, *ṣ> = */ts, dz, ts’/, <*ś, *ṣ́> = */tɬ, tɬ’/. As seen, "emphatics" (probably ejectives) are represented with underdots, including <*ḳ, *ṭ> = */k’, t’/; however, <*ḥ> represents */ħ/. */j/ is spelled <*y> and long vowels are spelled with a macron. Other symbols match their IPA usage.

In the dictionary, a number of reconstructed forms are ascribed to "Proto-Ugarito-Canaanite," but this should not be taken to imply the existence of a separate proto-language that led to Ugaritic and the Canaanite languages but not to Aramaic; rather, it simply marks words that are only attested in Ugaritic and Canaanite (there are quite a few such words). If there was no intermediate Proto-Ugarito-Canaanite language, such forms can be read as "either a Proto-Northwest Semitic term that was lost in Aramaic, or a term that was innovated in either Canaanite or Ugaritic after they separated and spread to the sister language through diffusion."

Finally, for all entries in which the term has a known Biblical or Rabbinical Hebrew cognate, this has been provided. The Hebrew is transcribed fairly traditionally, based on the Masoretic tradition, and probably represents the pronunciation in the post-Captivity period fairly well, with a few exceptions. (Note that the postvocalic fricative variants of /p t k b d g/ are not indicated.)

Ar. = Arabic
Ber. = Berber
Gk. = Greek
Heb. = Hebrew
Lat. = Latin
LbAr. = Libyan Arabic
MghAr. = Maghrebi Arabic
TnAr. = Tunisian Arabic
Ug. = Ugaritic

ïBoD, root. perish
ïDeR, root. big
ïGoR, root. test/hire
ïKoL, root. nibble/sip
√ØMeƔ, root. freeze
ïMvN, root. think
ïReK, root. old
√ØRoBʷ, root. about to
ïRoS, root. request
ïSeM, root. sorry
√ØŠvF, root. gather (intr)
ïYvB, root. pine for; love
ăb, nm. father
ádǝr, nf. grave
adum, adj. red
ăf, nm. face
afoar, nm. body hair
ăkkăb, nm. spider
aleθ, prep. on top of; right above
ălloθ, nf. loaf of bread
alloθ, nf. foreskin
ăllun, nm. tree
am, nm. husband's father; grandfather
ámǝs, numm. five (M)
ammieγ, adj. frozen, congealed; ice cream
ămmoθ, nf. foot (unit of measure)
annăfθ, nf. hare
aqṛob, nm. scorpion
aqʷəb, nm. foot (body part)
ar, nm. mound, heap, pile
arbe, nm. locust
arboa, numm. four (M)
ărəs, nm. request, petition; order (e.g.
aṛwe, nm. lion
aṛγɔḷ, nm. storm cloud
ăš, conj. but, however
ásǝr, numm. ten (M)
áttər, nf. goodness; glory, wonder, splendor, magnificence
ăttier, adj. big, large, great; strong, mighty, powerful
ăttoar, adj. empowering
ăttsoθ, numf. five (F)
attud, nm. billy goat
ăvd, nm. slave
áwǝn, nm. stone, rock
áwɔl, nm. leash, lead (rope for leading animals); strap
az, conj. and then, then, next, and
ăžžo, nf. red deer (Cervus elaphus)
ažγaroθ, nf. plain, flat land
ăγboar, nm. mouse
ăγeaṛ , nm. plant

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